Skip to main content

Response of sweet pepper plants to foliar application of compost tea and dry yeast under soilless conditions



Sweet pepper is considered one of the most important vegetable crops cultivated for local consumption and exportation. Under greenhouse conditions, the effects of different rates of yeast and compost tea on vegetative growth, leaves mineral content, fruit yield and quality were studied for two consecutive years 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 under soilless conditions. Nine treatments of compost tea (CT) and or dry yeast (DY) were applied using control (sprayed with distilled water); CT (10L/fed.); CT (20 L/fed.); DY (3 g/L); DY (6 g/L); CT (10L/fed.) + DY (3 g/L); CT (20L/fed.) + DY (3 g/L); CT (10L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) and CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L).


Results showed that the mixture of compost tea and dry yeast at a rate of 20 L./fed. plus 6 g/L, respectively, had significantly increased vegetative growth, fruit physical quality (length, diameter and fresh weight), total yield, leaves mineral content (N, P and K) and fruit nutritional value content (calcium and vitamin C). The maximum return or profit comes from the CT (20 L/fed) + DY (6 g/L) followed by CT (20 L/fed) + DY (3 g/L.)


It is clear that all treatments enhanced the yield and the fruit physical parameters of the studied plants as well as all treatments are economically feasible including the control treatment. However, looking at the Revenue/Cost ratio (R/C), one can find that the maximum net revenue comes from the mixture of CT (20 L/fed) plus DY (6 g/L) with a net revenue about 192.72 L.E./m2 and R/C ratio of 1.90, followed by CT (20 L/fed) + DY (3 g/L.).


Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L), Solanaceae family, is an important summer vegetable crop due to its high nutritional and medicinal value. It contains various nutrients, rich in thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, antioxidants, flavonoids, vitamin C and vitamin A (Igbokwe et al. 2013). The average cultivated area of pepper in the open field was about 97 thousand feddan in 2015, with a production capacity of about 615 thousand tons. Under protected cultivation, sweet pepper is cultivated in 25 thousand greenhouses with an area estimated at 2320 feddan, representing about 2.39% of the total cultivated pepper area, but its capacity production amounted to about 95 thousand tons, representing about 15.45% of the total productive capacity of the pepper crop in Egypt according to Ministry of Agriculture Statistics, (2016).

Compost tea became more valuable for applications in organic farming. It is produced by extracting useful microbes from compost and/or vermi-compost, thus obtaining a highly concentrated microbial solution. Compost tea gives positive effects for plants, because it contains chelated micronutrients for easy absorption by plants, bioactive molecules and microorganisms that protect the roots and the plant from pathogens and diseases. Moreover, it provides nutrients to plants, thus improving plant growth and health (Ingram and Millner 2007; Azza and Hendawy 2010). Compost tea produces plant hormones, mineralizes nutrients to available form to plants and fixes nitrogen (Abou-El-Hassan et al. 2014; Hatam et al. 2015). The effects of compost tea are short-lived so the applications must be repeated to supply plants and soil surface with nutrients and/or beneficial microbes (Ingham 2005).

Active dry yeast is a natural biofertilizer that improves plant growth and yield. It is rich in protein, vitamin B, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxines amino acids and cytokinin (Abdelaal et al. 2017; Nagwa et al. 2020). Also, one of the benefits of yeast is the release of carbon dioxide, which is reflected in improving net photosynthesis (Ahmed et al. 1998) and convert the non-soluble form of phosphorus to soluble one (available form for plant) (Agamy et al. 2013; Kalayu 2019).

Soilless culture is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solution with or without the use of growing media, such as sand, peat moss, vermiculite, etc., to supply mechanical support for plants (Pardossi et al. 2011). It has many advantages, such as steady and high-quality production (Veys 1997), earliness, high yield, cleaner production as well as minimum herbicide and pesticide residues in the fruit (Manukyan et al. 2004). Substrate media may significantly affect plant growth (Alsmairat et al. 2018) where media with low bulk density and high-water holding capacity enhances plant aeration and root penetration (Deepagoda et al. 2013). It has been reported that the substrate physical and chemical properties affect the production quality and quantity, such as yield, flower size and number, fruit sugar and phenolic compounds (Al-Ajlouni et al. 2017).

Therefore, this work aimed to study the effect of compost tea and active dry yeast on growth, fruit physical quality, total yield, leaves mineral content and fruit nutritional value (calcium and vitamin C) of sweet pepper under peat moss: perlite media.


Experimental site and cultivation method

An experiment was conducted in the farm of the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate Research Centre (CLAC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt, during the two successive winter seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to study the effect of different compost tea and active dry yeast rates on growth, fruit quality and yield of sweet pepper plants.

Sweet pepper cv. Gedeon F1 Hybrid seedlings were obtained from the Central Laboratory of Agriculture Climate (CLAC). Each seedling was transplanted in a five-liter pot (Neveen 2016) filled with a well-mixed media of perlite: peat moss (1:1: v/v). The physical and chemical characteristics of the used media are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Physical and chemical characteristics of used media substrate

The experiment contained nine treatments, with three replicates for each treatment. Seedlings were transplanted in pots under greenhouse conditions during the first week of October in both seasons, in plots of 3 m × 1 m arranged in completely randomized design. Each plot contained 48 pots and each pot contained one seedling. The distance between seedlings was 25 cm. This is done through drip irrigation system, which is running through the pots of the sweet pepper rows.

These pots were irrigated by Cooper nutrient solution (Cooper 1979), which adapted according to El-Behairy, (1994). Where desired initial concentration was maintained by dilution of the stock with tap water as illustrated in Table 2. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution was maintained between (2 and 2.2) m. mhos-1 and pH was kept between 6 and 6.5.

Table 2 The chemical composition of the nutrient solution

Experimental treatments and concentrations

  1. 1.

    Control (sprayed with distilled water).

  2. 2.

    Compost tea 10L./fed.

  3. 3.

    Compost tea 20L./fed.

  4. 4.

    Dry yeast 3 g/L.

  5. 5.

    Dry yeast 6 g/L.

  6. 6.

    Compost tea 10 L./fed. + yeast 3 g/L.

  7. 7.

    Compost tea 10 L./fed. + yeast 6 g/L.

  8. 8.

    Compost tea 20 L./fed. + yeast 3 g/L.

  9. 9.

    Compost tea 20 L./fed. + yeast 6 g/L.

Three weeks after transplanting and for three consecutive weeks, the plant leaves were sprayed with aqueous solution of yeast (15L/feddan) and compost tea by one of the above-mentioned concentrations each week, early in the morning, while the control plants sprayed by distilled water (Table 3).

Table 3 Dates of different activities during the two seasons

Compost tea extraction

Compost tea was extracted by adding 10 L of water to a liter of compost. Compost tea was left at room temperature for four days. After that, compost tea was filtered to avoid clogging of the spraying equipment. The chemical composition of the used compost tea is illustrated in Table 4. EC, soluble ions and pH were determined according to Jackson (1973). Available phosphorus and available potassium have been evaluated according to Black 1965 and total nitrogen has been determined according to Jackson (1973).

Table 4 Physical and chemical properties of the compost tea used in this study

Active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was dissolved in warm water (38 C) followed by adding sugar at a ratio of 1:1 to active growth and reproduction of yeast and was left for two hours before spraying according to Morsi et al (2008). The chemical analysis of the used active yeast is shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Chemical analysis of active dry yeast

Measurements and data collection

Vegetative measurements

The vegetative measurements were determined after 120 days from transplanting in both seasons during the flowering stage. Five plants were randomly chosen from each plot and transferred to laboratory to record the following data:

Plant length (cm); number of leaves/ plants, number of branches/ plants, leaves fresh weight (g/plant) and leaves dry matter (%), plant leaves area (cm2).

Chemical measurements

Determination of mineral content

Oven-dried samples from leaves were grinded and used to estimate total nitrogen and phosphorus contents using Kjeldahl and colorimetric methods, according to Cottenie (1980). Potassium content was measured according to Chapman and Pratt (1982) using flame photometer method.

Fruit yield

The fruits were harvested when having attained full size for fresh use. Fruit diameter (cm), fruit length (cm), fruit weight (g), total yield kg/pant then total yield kg/m2 were estimated.

Fruit chemical content and nutritional value:
  1. a.

    Determination of vitamin C (mg/100 g): randomly selected samples from the fresh fruits were analyzed to measure ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content according to AOAC (1990).

  2. b.

    Determination of Calcium content:

Oven-dried samples from fruits were grinded and used to estimate Calcium. It was measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAO 1980).

Economic evaluation

The benefit cost ratio was determined according to (Nahed, et al. 2015) by dividing the gross return (LE /m2) on total variable cost (LE /m2).

Total cost was determined by the cost of substrate + plastic pots + seedling + foliar application (compost tea and dry yeast) + nutrient solution + irrigation equipment.

Total yield for the two seasons was summed and multiplied by an average market price to represent the total income (Table 6).

  • Net revenue = Revenue—Total cost

  • The Revenue to Cost (R/C) ratio was calculated to represent the profit percentage.

Table 6 Items and prices of the economic evaluation used in this study

Statistical analysis

The experiment data were statistically analyzed using Mstatic (M.S.) software. Mean comparison of the different treatments was tested as illustrated by Snedecor and Cochran (1982), where, means with the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level of significance according to (Duncan 1955).


Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixtures on vegetative growth

Table 7a, b illustrate the response of vegetative parameters to the different rates of compost tea and or dry yeast and their mixtures applications. Plant length, number of leaves/plants, and number of branches/plants of sweet pepper plants positively responded to all foliar spray treatments with compost tea and or dry yeast as clear from Table 7a. The highest significant increases of all vegetative parameters were obtained by the mixture of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) followed by CT (20L/fed.) + DY (3 g/L) in both seasons. The plant length of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L)-treated plants increased compared to the control in the first and second seasons, respectively. Similarly, number of branches and number of leaves per plant also increased with the application of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) treatment.

Table 7 Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture (a) on vegetative characteristics of sweet pepper during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. (b) On sweet pepper vegetative characteristics during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020

Plant leaf area significantly increased from (129.73, 131.87 cm2) in case of the control treatment to (172.47, 184.07 cm2) due to the application of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) mixture in the two successive seasons. Also, plant fresh weight (g/plant) of the same treatment plants increased (998.90 and 1004.67) as compared with control (351.10 and 371.00). Dry matter percentage of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L)-treated plants increased by (24.67 and 26.17) as compared with control (13.83 and 15.33) in the first and second seasons, respectively.

Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixtures on physical quality and total yield

Results showed that mixture of compost tea and active dry yeast treatments enhanced fruit physical quality and total yield compared with the control treatment as shown in (Table 8). The highest values of all physical quality and total yield were obtained by the mixture of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L). The fruit diameter of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L)-treated plants increased (6.17, 5.90 cm) as compared with control (3.27, 3.13 cm) in the first and second seasons, respectively. Moreover, the fruit length of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L)-treated plants increased by (8.77 and 10.02). The fruit weight (g) also increased by (117.62 and 122.68) in the first and second seasons, respectively. Similarly, total yield (kg/plant) of 20L/fed. (CT) + 6 g/L (DY)-treated plants increased by (2.06 and 2.18) as compared with control (1.09 and 1.21) in the first and second seasons, respectively.

Table 8 Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture on fruit physical quality and total yield of sweet pepper during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020

Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture on leaf mineral content

There were significant increases due to compost tea and or dry yeast applications in terms of leaf mineral contents, i.e., N, P and K compared with the control treatment (Table 9). Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the treated plants by mixture of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) increased in the first and second season, respectively, as compared to control. The lowest values of the mentioned parameters were recorded by control in both seasons.

Table 9 Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture on leaf mineral contents (N, P, and K %) of sweet pepper during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020

Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture on fruit nutritional values

Nutritional values (calcium and vitamin C) of sweet pepper fruits were significantly increased due to all applications of compost tea and/or dry yeast treatments compared with the control in both seasons as shown in Table 10. Calcium percentage and vitamin C (mg/100 g) content in the treated plants by mixture of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) significantly increased (2.01 and 2.14) and (89.33 and 94.52) as compared to control (1.48 and 1.59) and vit. C (72.49 and 75.23) in the first and second seasons, respectively.

Table 10 Effect of compost tea, dry yeast and their mixture on fruit nutritional values of sweet pepper during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020

Economic feasibility

Economic feasibility is a criterion that can be used to evaluate the benefit in terms of economic value or cash return investment. In this study the sum of the total fixed cost is calculated once for the two seasons and the variable costs were estimated for one season and multiplied by two representing the total cost, while the total yield for the two seasons were summed and multiplied by an average market price to represent the total revenue. The difference between the total cost and the total revenue is the profit. The Revenue to Cost (R/C) ratio was calculated to represent the profit percentage, where its value reflects the economic feasibility of the proposed treatments. When the R/C ratio is less than one the proposed treatment is not feasible in terms of cost to revenue aspects. In contrast if the R/C ratio is greater than one the project is profitable.

Table 11 represents the results of the conducted economic feasibility study for these proposed treatments. It is clear that all treatments are economically feasible including the control treatment; however, looking at the R/C ratio, one can find that the maximum return or profit comes from the compost tea (20 L/fed) and yeast (6 g/L) mixture, followed by compost tea (20 L/fed) and yeast (3 g/L) mixture as indicated by the treatment order column in Fig. 1.

Table 11 Economic feasibility study for the application of different treatments on pepper yield (L.E./ m2)
Fig. 1
figure 1

Total costs and revenue (L.E./m2) for the application of different treatments on sweet pepper yield


Results reported that foliar spray of sweet pepper with the mixture of CT (20L/fed.) + DY (6 g/L) is the most suitable under soilless culture, which ranked the first in all vegetative growth characters, total yield, fruit quality, and chemical composition. It could be attributed to the dual effect of compost tea and dry yeast on plant metabolism, which promotes cell division, amino acids and vitamin synthesis which improves plant growth (Matter and El Sayed 2015). Consequently, the plants received the benefit of both factors at the same time. The positive impact of compost tea on plants may return to supply them with chelated microelements and increase elements availability which make them easier for plants absorption. Also, these fertilizers supply plants with nutrients and useful microorganisms that increased the time for the stomata to remain opened. Our results agree to a great extent with those obtained by (Gharib et al. 2008 and Azza & Hendawy 2010). They showed that vegetative growth and oil yield and quality of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) and Borago officinalis plants, respectively, were increased by foliar application of compost tea. In addition, dry yeast plays an important role in secretion of some growth promoters, such as cytokines that induces cell reproduction and differentiation, controlling shoot and root development and chloroplast maturation (Abdelaal et al. 2017 and Nagwa et al. 2020). Also, the effect of adding dry yeast on improving vegetative growth may be due to the fact that many physiological and biological processes take place in the leaves, in addition to the leaves being an effective method for better absorption and transport of nutrients inside the plant (AL-Karawi et al. 2018). Moreover, the importance of dry yeast for improving the vegetative growth characters, yield and quality of sweet pepper may be due to its content of nutrients like nitrogen as shown in Table 5. Several authors have been attributed this bio-stimulatory effect to its influence on the nutritional signal transduction producing growth regulators and crushing harmful microorganisms (El-Ghadban et al. 2003). Also, El-Tohamy and El-Greadly (2007) studied the promoting effect of foliar application of dry yeast on snap beans plants, and it increased growth, yield and quality. Our findings are similar with the findings of Azza and Hendawy (2010) on borage plants. Also, Gomaa and Mohamed (2007) studied the combined effect of organic and bio-fertilizers on guar plants, and found that the highest yield was obtained from the mixture application of 20-ton manure and rhizobium + yeast (40 L/feddan).


The application of compost tea and dry yeast significantly enhanced the fruit chemical and physical characteristics of sweet pepper plants for the two studied seasons. The combination of the two fertilizers was superior compared to each one alone. Using 20 L./fed. of compost tea + 6 g/L. of dry yeast resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield, physical and chemical qualities of sweet pepper plants. Moreover, economically speaking this treatment also was the highest in terms of benefit to cost ratio compared to all other treatments.

As a general recommendation from this study, the foliar spraying mixtures of organic and bio-fertilizer (compost tea and active dry yeast) to sweet pepper plants produced the highest yield and better fruit quality. Also, this means that decreasing the quantity of mineral fertilization which increases the net income to the growers and reduces the environment pollution caused by extensive application of mineral fertilizers.

Availability of data and materials

Authors declare that all data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.



Compost tea


Dry yeast


Revenue to cost ratio


  • Abdelaal KAA, Hafez YM, El Sabagh A, Saneoka H (2017) Ameliorative effects of abscisic acid and yeast on morpho-physiological and yield characteristics of maize plant (Zea mays L.) under water deficit conditions. Fresenius Environ Bull 26(12): 7372–7383.

  • Abou-El-Hassan S, Abdrabbo MAA, Desoky AH (2014) Enhancing organic production of cucumber by using plant growth promoting rizobacteria and compost tea under sandy soil condition. Res J Agric Biol Sci 10(2):162–169

    Google Scholar 

  • Agamy R, Hashem M, Alamr S (2013) Effect of soil amendment with yeasts as bio-fertilizers on the growth and productivity of sugar beet African J Agric Res 8(1): 46–56

  • Ahmed FF, Ragab MA, Ahmed AA, Mansour AEM (1998) Beneficial effects of supplying active dry yeast to some foliar fertilizers on "Anna" apple trees (Malus domestica L.). Proc. Symp. Foliar fertilizing: a technique to improve production and decrease pollution, Cairo, Egypt, pp 149–160.

  • AL- Karawi HNR, Salman FA, Al-Mosawi AJJ (2018) Effect of spraying with dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and boron on the growth and production of the strawberries plant cultivated under the conditions of protected agriculture. Euphrates J Agric Sci 01(3): 60–68

  • Al-Ajlouni M, Ayad J, Othman Y (2017) Particle size of volcanic tuff improves shoot growth and flower quality of Asiatic hybrid lily using soilless culture. Hort Technol 27:223–227

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alsmairat N, Al-Ajlouni M, Ayad J, Othman Y, Hilaire R (2018) Composition of soilless substrates affect the physiology and fruit quality of two strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars. J Plant Nutr 41:1420–1430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis of the association of Official analytical chemist’s 15th Ed. Published by the association of official analytical chemists, INC suite 400. 2200 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia. 22201 USA

  • Azza AE, Hendawy SF (2010) Effect of dry yeast and compost tea on growth and oil content of Borago officinalis plant. Res J Agric Biol Sci 6(4):424–430

    Google Scholar 

  • Black CA (1965) Method of soil analysis (ed.) Part-2. American Society of Agronomy. Wisconsin, USA: 1179–1232

  • Chapman H, Pratt F (1982) Determination of minerals by titration method methods of analysis for soils, plants and water 2nd Edn., California University. Agriculture division, USA: 169–170

  • Cooper A (1979) The ABC of NFT grower books. London. p 181

  • Cottenie A (1980) Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendations

  • Deepagoda TK, Lopez J, Møldrup P, De Jonge L, Tuller M (2013) Integral parameters for characterizing water, energy, and aeration properties of soilless plant growth media. J Hydrol 502:120–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duncan DB (1955) Multiple range and multiple “F” test. Biometrics 11:1–42

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • El-Behairy U (1994) The effect of levels of phosphorus and zinc in the nutrient solution on macro and micronutrients uptake and translocation in cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) grown by the nutrient film technique. Ph.D thesis, London Univ., p 299

  • El-Ghadban EAE, Kulb SA, Eid MI (2003) Effect of foliar spraying with active dry yeast and complete fertilizer (sengral) on growth, yield and fixed oil of (Ricinus communis). Egypt Pharm J, 55–66

  • El-Tohamy WA, El-Greadly NHM (2007) Physiological responses, growth, yield and quality of snap beans in response to foliar application of yeast, vitamin E and zinc under sandy conditions. Aust J Basic Appl Sci, 1(3): 294–299.

  • FAO (1980) Soil and plant testing analyzing bulletin. 38/1, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome. 250 p

  • Gharib FA, Moussa LA, Massoud ON (2008) Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plant. Int J Agric Biol 10(4):381–387

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomaa AM, Mohamed MH (2007) Application of bio-organic agriculture and its effect on guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) root nodules, forage, seed yield and yield quality. World J Agric Sci 3(1):91–96

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatam S, Bahman FN, Hasan A, Gholam A, Sadegh S (2015) An overview of the benefits of compost tea on plant and soil structure. Adv Biores Adv Biores 6(1):154–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Igbokwe GE, Aniakor GC, Anagonye CO (2013) Determination of β-carotene & vitamin C content of fresh green pepper (Capsicum annnum), fresh red pepper (Capsicum annum) and fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits. Bioscientist 1:89–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Ingham ER (2005) The compost tea brewing manual. Soil Food web Incorporated, 728 SW Wake Robin Ave Corvallis, Oregon 97333

  • Ingram DT, Millner PD (2007) Factors affecting compost tea as a potential source of Escherichia coli and salmonella on fresh produce. J Food Prot, 70(4), Food Safety Implications of a Popular Farming Practice: Compost Tea

  • Jackson ML (1973) Soil analysis. ConsTable Co., Ltd., London, pp 1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalayu G (2019) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms: promising approach as biofertilizers. Hindawi Int J Agron.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manukyan AE, Heuberger HT, Schnitzler WH (2004) Yield and quality of some herbs of the Lamiaceae family under soilless greenhouse production. J Appl Bot Food Qual 78:193–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Matter FMA, El Sayed SA (2015) Influence of mixed NPK fertilizers with foliar spray of active dry yeast on caraway under newly reclaimed soil conditions, vol 5, 423–430

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (EAS), Economic Affairs Sector 2016. Bulletin of Agriculture Statistics

  • Morsi MK, El-Magoli B, Saleh NT, El-Hadidy EM, Barakat HA (2008) Study of antioxidants and anticancer activity licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts. Egypt J Nutr Feeds 2(33):177–203

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagwa MKH, Neama M, Marzouk F, Zakaria F, Said AS (2020) Effect of bio-stimulants foliar applications on growth, yield, and product quality of two Cassava cultivars. Bull Natl Res Centre 44:59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nahed MM, El-Sayeda H, El-Badawy M, Hager IT (2015) Response of sweet pepper plants to some organic and bio-fertilizers and its effect on fruit yield and quality. Middle East J Agric 4:435–445

    Google Scholar 

  • Neveen E M (2016) Effect of using different substrate culture systems on growth and production of hot pepper grown in rooftops gardens. Int J Environ 5(2): 26–35

  • Pardossi A, Carmassi G, Diara C, Incrocci L, Maggini R, Massa D (2011) Fertigation and substrate management in closed soilless culture. EUPHOROS Project report: 5–27

  • Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1982) Statistical Methods, 7th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Iowa, USA

  • Veys P (1997) Hydroponic culture of roses in Europe: Cultivars and culture methods. Proceedings of hydroponic culture of vegetable crops and flowers. Korea Hydrop Soc 19–32

Download references


The authors would like to thank the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate Research Centre (CLAC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt, for providing the greenhouse, labor and facility to carry out the experiment.


The Research experiment was fully self-funded by the authors themselves and no funding was received from any other parities.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



HA have contributed in conceptualization of the study, literature review search, experimental design and data interpretation and statistical data analysis, manuscript writing and reviewing. FS have contributed in running and following up the experiment throughout the two seasons, taking and recording the measurements, manuscript writing, reviewing and publishing. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fatma Sayed Aboud.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abd-Alrahman, H.A., Aboud, F.S. Response of sweet pepper plants to foliar application of compost tea and dry yeast under soilless conditions. Bull Natl Res Cent 45, 119 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: