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  1. The human external ear is unique in every individual in terms of shape, size and dimension making it suitable in forensic anthropology for sex estimation and personal identification purposes. The study aimed t...

    Authors: Samson Taiwo Fakorede, Khalid Olajide Adekoya, Taiwo Peter Fasakin, Joshua Odubambo Odufisan and Bola Oboh

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:205

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of time of feeding on the performance of WAD goats during pregnancy, and to assess how the time of feeding of the dam affect the growth of their kids’ postpartum...

    Authors: Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye, Oluwatosin Bode Omotoso, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin, Samuel Olanrewaju Aro, Damilola Deborah Obadare, Michael Eyitope Adunbi and Tolulope Oreoluwa Faniyi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:204

    Content type: Research

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  3. There are multiple strategies that have been suggested to attenuate delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Curcumin has been shown to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. However, cur...

    Authors: Natthanichar Rattanaseth, Patteera Panyarapeepat, Janisa Andrea Muljadi, Kornkit Chaijenkij and Jatupon Kongtharvonskul

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:203

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  4. Indonesia has started the big project of COVID-19 vaccination program since 13 January 2021 by employing the first shot of vaccine to the President of Indonesia as the outbreak and rapid transmission of COVID-...

    Authors: Reviany V. Nidom, Setyarina Indrasari, Irine Normalina, Astria N. Nidom, Balqis Afifah, Lestari Dewi, Andra K. Putra, Arif N. M. Ansori, Muhammad K. J. Kusala, Mohammad Y. Alamudi and Chairul A. Nidom

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:200

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of Nano-hydroxyapatite-modified conventional glass ionomer cement (NHA-GIC) and Nano-hydroxyapatite-modified resin-modified glass ionomer cement (N...

    Authors: Zeinab M. Zaki, Maha A. Niazy, Mohamed H. Zaazou, Shaymaa M. Nagi and Dina W. Elkassas

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:199

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template is widespread due to its diverse metal nanostructures. Various solar selective black coatings on aluminum oxide template were investigated. Spectrally selective nano-coatin...

    Authors: H. S. Hussein, M. F. Shaffei, Ahmed M. Awad Abouelata and Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:198

    Content type: Research

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  7. There are multiple strategies that have been suggested to attenuate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Caffeine has been shown to assist with blocking pain associated with DOMS. However, currently there is ...

    Authors: Janisa Andrea Muljadi, Patsorn Kaewphongsri, Kornkit Chaijenkij and Jatupon Kongtharvonskul

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:197

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:202

  8. One of the parameters required for the assessment of food and feed safety is detection and identification of genetically modified organisms. Legislation in some countries necessitates detection and quantificat...

    Authors: Hanaa Abdel-Sadek Oraby, Nadia Aboul-Ftooh Aboul-Maaty and Hayam Ahmad Al-Sharawi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:196

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Lately, thermoplastic and thermoset polymers are integrated with natural fillers to harvest composites. Due to an excellent property profile, these composites find wide applications in engineering fields. This...

    Authors: Ernest Mbamalu Ezeh

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:195

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. This study aimed to in vivo and in vitro evaluate the remineralization potential and shear bond strength (SBS) of experimentally prepared tri-calcium aluminate (C3A)-modified glass ionomer cements on sound and ar...

    Authors: M. M. Radwan, H. K. Abd EL-Hamid and Shaymaa M. Nagi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:192

    Content type: Research

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  11. This study focused on the evaluation of the bioactive compounds of Vernonia amygdalina Del. leaf extracts and their antibacterial potential on some water-related bacterial isolates. The bacterial isolates were co...

    Authors: Olubukola Olusola-Makinde, Olayinka Bukola Olabanji and Tope Abraham Ibisanmi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:191

    Content type: Research

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  12. Enormous improvements in dental materials’ manufacturing for the aim of producing durable dental materials without compromising the aesthetic properties were developed. One of the approaches that fulfill this ...

    Authors: Engie M. Safwat, Ahmad G. A. Khater, Ahmed G. Abd-Elsatar and Gamal A. Khater

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:190

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  13. The excessive usage of herbicides to control herbs by farmers has become an issue of interest to the environmentalist due to the threat posed by such act to the ecosystem, and therefore, there is the need to c...

    Authors: Thomas Aondofa Nyijime, Abdullahi Muhammad Ayuba and Habibat Faith Chahul

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:189

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. The transition to pulmonary respiration and the termination of foetal cardiovascular shunts is expected to commence immediately after birth. Subsequently, alveolar ventilation and tissue perfusion must be esta...

    Authors: Buhari Habibu, Mohammed Umaru Kawu, Tagang Aluwong and Hussaina Joan Makun

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:188

    Content type: Research

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  15. The preparation of an effective drug delivery formulation is an urgent need to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Pentavalent antimonials and Amphotericin B (AmB) are considered to treat leishmaniasis; howeve...

    Authors: Aamir Sohail, Rahat Ullah Khan, Momin Khan, Mehvish Khokhar, Safat Ullah, Arshad Ali, Hazrat Bilal, Saadullah Khattak, Mirwaise Khan and Baseer Ahmad

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:187

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Africa is blessed with rich floral biodiversity which are harnessed as herbal medicines and remedies for several ailments. Since there has been evidence of organ toxicity following prolonged ingestion of medic...

    Authors: Uchechi E. Enenebeaku, Evangeline N. Okotcha, Lilian M. O. Oguoma, Ifeyinwa C. Mgbemena, Conrad K. Enenebeaku and Chiemeziem A. Onyeka

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:186

    Content type: Research

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  17. The consumption of fresh vegetables and salads has become popular, and because of a greater understanding of health benefits, these are most often eaten raw or with minimal processing.

    Authors: Igba Profit, Adebayo Sami’a Yunus, Gbonjubola Olusesan Adeshina, Babajide Akinyele Tytler, Ahmed Babangida Suleiman and Busayo Olalekan Olayinka

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:185

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  18. African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata) are hermaphroditic pulmonate nocturnal gastropods of the Achatinidae family. The snail is one of West Africa's largest known terrestrial snails. The majority of ...

    Authors: Titus Adeniyi Olusi, Olugbenga Samuel Babatunde and Muideen Adeniji

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:183

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. A study was undertaken to assess the effect of bioactive peptides derived from cottonseed (BPC) supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum and yolk in...

    Authors: Nasir Landy and Farshid Kheiri

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:182

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Nanotechnology's rapid development has been in great demand, particularly for silver nanoparticles, which are useful in a variety of industries including medicine, textiles, and home appliances. Silver nanopar...

    Authors: Prashant J. Burange, Mukund G. Tawar, Ritu A. Bairagi, Vedanshu R. Malviya, Vanshika K. Sahu, Sakshi N. Shewatkar, Roshani A. Sawarkar and Renuka R. Mamurkar

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:181

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. Haemonchosis is a serious disease affecting ruminants’ productivity worldwide. Medicinal plants are deemed one of the most natural bio-products safely used as alternatives to the synthetic anthelmintics. In th...

    Authors: Noha M. F. Hassan, Ahmed A. Zaghawa, Nadia M. T. Abu-Elezz, Mohamed A. Nayel and Akram A. Salama

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:180

    Content type: Research

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  22. Man has a long history of utilizing herbal preparations to treat infections. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the quantitative phytochemical components, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis,...

    Authors: Kingsley Erhons Enerijiofi, Funmilayo Hannah Akapo and Joseph Omorogiuwa Erhabor

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:179

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Was to evaluate effect of clove, turmeric and garlic nano-herbal extracts on surface roughness and microhardness of demineralized dentin, and their bactericidal effect on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus so...

    Authors: Lamiaa M. Moharam, Doaa M. Sadony, Manal M. Adel and Karim Montasser

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:178

    Content type: Research

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  24. Using of nanoparticles in various aspects of life including agriculture, medicine and industry is very crucial. One of the important source for Fe nutrition in plants is Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) due to...

    Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Magda H. Mohamed, Mervat Sh. Sadak and Alice T. Thalooth

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:177

    Content type: Research

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  25. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (W. somnifera) is a herb commonly known by its English name as Winter Cherry. Africa is indigenous to many medicinal plants and natural products. However, there is inadequate documen...

    Authors: Henok Kessete Afewerky, Ayeni Emmanuel Ayodeji, Bashir Bolaji Tiamiyu, Joshua Iseoluwa Orege, Emmanuel Sunday Okeke, Aanuoluwapo Opeyemi Oyejobi, Petuel Ndip Ndip Bate and Sherif Babatunde Adeyemi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:176

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. Postharvest treatments are crucial to the quality of cocoa finished products. This study aimed at investigating the effects of durations of fermentation and drying on the quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bea...

    Authors: Emmanuel Ackah and Eric Dompey

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:175

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:184

  27. Cryptosporidium spp. is an intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a diarrhoeal disease of humans and domestic animals. Transmission of Cryptosporidiosis to humans and other anima...

    Authors: Akinbode Ayekooto Olonisakin and Titus Adeniyi Olusi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:174

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The increase in multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic bacteria responsible for infectious diseases has led to lack of effectiveness of some antibiotics. The ability of Escherichia coli to harbor resistant g...

    Authors: Martha Uzoaru Ajuga, Kome Otokunefor and Obakpororo Ejiro Agbagwa

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:173

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Dromedary camels could be a successful and economic meat provider in poor greenery lands where feeds and water are scarcely available. Moreover, camels need lower amounts of protein in their rations than other...

    Authors: A. Y. El-Badawi, A. Hassan, A. Abedo, M. Yacout, M. Khalel, G. Abou-Ward, F. Helal and S. El-Naggar

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:172

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Blood cleansing, purification, detoxification or strengthening is an ancient folkloric East African practice without any validated scientific underpinnings. This study was undertaken to retrieve ethnobotanical...

    Authors: Timothy Omara

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:171

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  31. Two separate experiments were conducted in the minor season from September to November, 2019 and major season from March to May, 2020 to determining the type of soil amendment and transplanting age that can be...

    Authors: Isaac Addo, Kwadwo Gyasi Santo, Abdul Aziz Khalid and Emmanuel Ackah

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. The use of active carbons derived from waste biomass as adsorbents in the remediation of wastewater remains a valuable and cost-effective technology when compared to the use of commercial active carbon for the...

    Authors: Enebi Estella Jasper, Jude Chinedu Onwuka and Yakubu Manasseh Bidam

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:168

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. The most well-known cause of cancer deaths identified in female is breast cancer. Several drugs approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of breast cancer may have adverse health eff...

    Authors: Sagiru Hamza Abdullahi, Adamu Uzairu, Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim and Abdullahi Bello Umar

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:167

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Sugar beet is considered a very important strategic economic crop, as it comes at the second place for white sugar production in Egypt after sugar cane and the sugar percentage in its roots is 20%. This work w...

    Authors: Almoataz Bellah Ali El-Mouhamady, Magdy Ahmad Al-Kordy and Tarik Abdel-Fatah Elewa

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:166

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Ipekere agbado is a traditional maize-based snack consumed in South Western part of Nigeria, but low in protein content and deteriorate within few days. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the chemical composit...

    Authors: Matthew Olusola Oluwamukomi, Timilehin David Oluwajuyitan and Oluwatobiloba Tolulope Makinde

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Candida species is considered one of the normal inhabitant commensal microbiota of the human body. However, it can also act as an opportunistic pathogen especially in hospitals (nosocomial infection) and among im...

    Authors: Anas Salama Sayed Hemaid, Mohamed Mahmoud Effat Abdelghany and Tarek Mohamed Abdelghany

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:201

  37. Data on the prevalence, genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of colonizing and infection-associated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains both in humans and animals in Tanzania are scarce. Given the w...

    Authors: Tutu Mzee, Theckla Kazimoto, Joseph Madata, Rose Masalu, Markus Bischoff, Mecky Matee and Sören L. Becker

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:162

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. The relation between the macronutrients P and K seems to be synergistic due to the beneficial effects of the interaction between (P × K) and varies according to the variety used. Therefore, two field experimen...

    Authors: E. M. Abd El Lateef, Asal M. Wali and M. S. Abd El-Salam

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Extraction of the first premolar followed by canine retraction into the extraction space is a common treatment in orthodontics. Molar rotation occurs when they are used as anchorage units for the canine distal...

    Authors: Reem M. AlShazly, Ahmad F. Almohammad, Hend Salah ElSayed and Amr Ragab EL-Beialy

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:160

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The atmosphere is usually contaminated by heavy metals from different natural and anthropogenic sources. The levels of heavy metals in the atmosphere often become harmful and cause environmental pollution with...

    Authors: Bright Chigozie Ichu, Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara, Emmanuel Nnamdi Ejike, Amarachi Udoka Nkwoada, Francis Chizoruo Ibe and Emmanuel Chuka Dioha

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:159

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. There is an exponential rise in the use of farming chemicals in agricultural practices ostensibly to increase food production. The chewing of fresh khat leaves and shoots has spread across the world from ancie...

    Authors: Albert M. Oyugi, Joshua K. Kibet and John O. Adongo

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:158

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  42. Panicle-feeding insects are a challenge in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivation but most farmers do not protect the crop. Here, the effects of pest management in different sorghum cultivars on grain ...

    Authors: Jerry A. Nboyine, Kenneth Opare-Obuobi, Iddrisu Yahaya, Benjamin K. Badii, Francis Kusi, Asieku Yahaya and Gloria Adazebra

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:157

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Estuarine and marine water quality has remarkable importance because these water resources are used for multiple reasons for instance: transportation, tourism, recreation, and other human or economic ways to u...

    Authors: Ebenezer Aquisman Asare, Zaini Bin Assim, Rafeah Binti Wahi, Rajuna Bin Tahir and Eric Kwabena Droepenu

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:156

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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The NRC has to correspond to the country's key production and services sectors through the research conducted in different areas of science and technology, scientific consultation and training as well.

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