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  1. There is an exponential rise in the use of farming chemicals in agricultural practices ostensibly to increase food production. The chewing of fresh khat leaves and shoots has spread across the world from ancie...

    Authors: Albert M. Oyugi, Joshua K. Kibet and John O. Adongo

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:158

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Panicle-feeding insects are a challenge in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivation but most farmers do not protect the crop. Here, the effects of pest management in different sorghum cultivars on grain ...

    Authors: Jerry A. Nboyine, Kenneth Opare-Obuobi, Iddrisu Yahaya, Benjamin K. Badii, Francis Kusi, Asieku Yahaya and Gloria Adazebra

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:157

    Content type: Research

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  3. Estuarine and marine water quality has remarkable importance because these water resources are used for multiple reasons for instance: transportation, tourism, recreation, and other human or economic ways to u...

    Authors: Ebenezer Aquisman Asare, Zaini Bin Assim, Rafeah Binti Wahi, Rajuna Bin Tahir and Eric Kwabena Droepenu

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:156

    Content type: Research

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  4. Pet birds are housed and reared exclusively for ornamental use. These include psittaciformes (parrots, parakeets, budgerigars, love birds) and passeriformes (e.g. canaries, finches, sparrows, also called songb...

    Authors: Adelekan Oluseyi Okunlade, Oluwaseun Olanrewaju Esan and Akinlabi Oladele Ogunleye

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:155

    Content type: Case Report

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  5. This study aimed to development new faba bean hybrids resistant to chocolate spot disease and using them in breeding programs. Six faba bean genotypes were crossed in a diallel system excluding reciprocals dur...

    Authors: M. M. F. Abdalla, M. M. Shafik, Heba A. M. A. Saleh, M. A. Khater and N. A. Ghazy

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:154

    Content type: Research

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  6. Several mechanisms had been exhibited by plants to mitigate deleterious effects of salinity stress. A screen house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salinity stress on the activities of os...

    Authors: Foluso Ologundudu

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:152

    Content type: Research

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  7. Strategic crops need to be screened from time to time to select the most tolerant and stable genotypes incompatible with environmental conditions. This research experiments were carried out to screen thirteen ...

    Authors: Samy A. A. Heiba, Samira A. Osman, Sara E. I. Eldessouky, Atef A. A. Haiba and Rania T. Ali

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:151

    Content type: Research

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  8. High effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines is essential for the pandemic control. This study systematically reviewed available evidence on effectiveness of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines in the general population,...

    Authors: Chinonyerem O. Iheanacho, Uchenna I. H. Eze and Emmanuel A. Adida

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:150

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  9. Ilmenite and rutile are naturally occurring titanium-bearing heavy minerals. Sri Lanka consists of ilmenite and rutile in placer deposits mainly along the northeast coast. The commercial value of rutile is hig...

    Authors: T. Dilmi. U. Wijewardhana and Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:149

    Content type: Research

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  10. Among the physical evidence, bloodstain is one of the most common biological pieces of evidence at the crime scene, especially in violent crimes. Bloodstains are frequently seen at the crime scene and can be e...

    Authors: Tuğba Ünsal Sapan, Işıl Tuna Erdoğan and Sevil Atasoy

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:148

    Content type: Research

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  11. Actinomycetes are prolific producers of bioactive compounds which can be used to combat microbial infections. Microbial infections have resulted to increase in mortality and morbidity rates world-wide, especia...

    Authors: Olumuyiwa Moses Adeyemo, Mohammed Inuwa Ja’afaru and Feyisayo Victoria Adams

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:147

    Content type: Research

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  12. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiation exposure and storage time on the degree of conversion (DC%) and flexural strength (FS) of three different resin composites. In total, 90 disk-shaped...

    Authors: Ragia M. Taher, Lamiaa M. Moharam, Amin E. Amin, Mohamed H. Zaazou, Farid S. El-Askary and Mokhtar N. Ibrahim

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:146

    Content type: Research

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  13. The areas of application of natural fibres have gained popularity in recent times due to their attractive advantages when compared with other materials of engineering. These advantages include lightness, cost-...

    Authors: Raphael Stone Odera, Onukwuli Dominic Okechukwu, Ernest Mbamalu Ezeh, Mathew Chukwudi Menkiti and Peter Chinedu Agu

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:145

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  14. The literature shows that ABO blood groups and demographic characteristics influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may be used to stem the rising incidence of the disease. However, thes...

    Authors: Tajudeen O. Yahaya, Esther O. Oladele, Mari B. Mshelia, Mutiu O. Sifau, Oluwatosin D. Fashola, M. D. A. Bunza and Josephine Nathaniel

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:144

    Content type: Research

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  15. Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Black carrots) are underutilized in context to their nutritional properties. In this study, Kanji, a naturally fermented probiotic beverage, was prepared using Daucus carota subsp. s...

    Authors: Chetna Sharma, Param Pal Sahota and Sarabjit Kaur

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:143

    Content type: Research

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  16. Virtual anthropology in estimating stature through multislice computed tomography scanning is important for forensic cases and mass disasters. Regression formulae generated directly from other post-cranial ske...

    Authors: Poh Soon Lai, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor and Nurliza Abdullah

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:142

    Content type: Research

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  17. The choice between extraction and expansion treatment is an endless debate in orthodontics. Ethnic and secular variations showed that there was a change in  arch perimeter over the last 50 years. Accordingly,...

    Authors: Omnia A. Elhiny, Mohammed Abou Elyazied and Ghada A. Salem

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:141

    Content type: Research

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  18. A novel corona virus is formally named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which results in causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is the latest prevalent pandemic worldwi...

    Authors: Sankari Mohan, M. Reshma Anjum, Anusha Kodidasu, T. V. N. Sai Prathyusha, Nunna Venkata Mrunalini and B. Kishori

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:139

    Content type: Review

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  19. Gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease in children, which results in high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-poor countries. This study presents the selected main gastroenteritis causing b...

    Authors: Mohammad Sharif Uddin, Md. Mijanur Rahman, Md. Omar Faruk, Asma Talukder, Md. Imranul Hoq, Suman Das and K. M. Shariful Islam

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:138

    Content type: Research

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  20. This study attempts to review the role of slaughter facilities management of all zoonotic diseases encountered at the abattoirs as well as the safety of meat produced for public consumption in abattoirs in Nig...

    Authors: Salisu Ibrahim, Bilkisu Yunusa Kaltungo, Hajara Buhari Uwale, Alhassan Yunusa Baba, Shehu Na-Allah Saidu, Farouk Umar Mohammed and Hashimu Mohammed Dahiru

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:137

    Content type: Review

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  21. Previous studies on iron with folic acid supplementation and low birth weight indicated different findings. The aim of the current systemic review and meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between iron...

    Authors: Andualem Zenebe, Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne, Berhanu Bifato and Abiyu Ayalew Assefa

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:135

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  22. Coronavirus Disease Pandemic 2019 has a pervasive effect on all health aspects include psychological and mental health. This study aimed to assess the hidden stressful impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Egyptian c...

    Authors: Amira Sayed El Refay, Shaimaa A. Hashem, Hend H. Mostafa, Iman H. Kamel and Lobna S. Sherif

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:134

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. The COVID-19 respiratory illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide since the first reported case in Wuhan, China. A year has passed since pandemic began, and ...

    Authors: Emmanuel Kagning Tsinda and Gideon Sadikiel Mmbando

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:133

    Content type: Review

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  24. Women's pain satisfaction post-cesarean section remains a challenge. Accurate assessment of pain severity of post-cesarean section helps to choose the most appropriate anesthetic approach, drug, and dose, as w...

    Authors: Sondos M. Salem, Mazen Abdel-Rasheed, Mohammad A. Gouda and Sameh Salama

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:132

    Content type: Research

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  25. Medicinal plants are used to manage pain and inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. A scientific investigation could serve as a basis for the determination of molecular mechanisms of antinociceptive a...

    Authors: Abdullahi Garba Usman, Mubarak Hussaini Ahmad, Rabi’u Nuhu Danraka and Sani Isah Abba

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:128

    Content type: Research

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  26. In this work, an economic study for production reverse osmosis (RO) membrane from a blend of polyvinylchloride (PVC) with cellulose acetate (CA) was investigated. The model for predicting RO membrane performan...

    Authors: A. El-Gendi, H. Abdallah and A. Amin

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:126

    Content type: Research

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  27. Cadmium (Cd) is a known metallohormone which mimics the action of steroid hormones with adverse effect on testicular function. It is highly toxic and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no conventional ...

    Authors: Remigius Ibe Onoja, Chinwe Uzoma Chukwudi, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Ugwueze, Davinson Chuka Anyogu, Wilson Obidah and Benjamin Ifechukwu Emesiani

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The use of metal-containing and antimicrobial compounds is a common practice in aquaculture operations in Nigeria. Only a few studies have focused on the impact of these chemicals on metal and antibiotic resis...

    Authors: Abimbola Olumide Adekanmbi, Ololade Grace Olawuni and Adedolapo Victoria Olaposi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:122

    Content type: Research

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  29. Climate change and increasing demand in non-agricultural sectors profoundly affect the availability and quality of water resources for irrigated agriculture. The FAO AquaCrop simulation model provides a sound ...

    Authors: Rajesh Kumar Soothar, Ashutus Singha, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro, Azhar-u-ddin Chachar, Faiza Kalhoro and Md Arifur Rahaman

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. This study aimed at assessing the effect of different kinematics as well as different instrument designs on efficiency of cutting of two heat-treated nickel–titanium systems. Forty resin canals with 30°-angle ...

    Authors: Engy M. Kataia, Mohamed Mokhtar Nagy, Mohamed M. Kataia and Hala Fayek Khalil

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:120

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Sweet pepper is considered one of the most important vegetable crops cultivated for local consumption and exportation. Under greenhouse conditions, the effects of different rates of yeast and compost tea on ve...

    Authors: Hanaa Ali Abd-Alrahman and Fatma Sayed Aboud

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:119

    Content type: Research

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  32. The plant Hymenocardia acida (Euphorbiaceae) is utilized as herbal preparation against diarrhoea, dysentery and other diseases. We aimed to determine the antidiarrhoeal potentials of Hymenocardia acida (MEHA) ste...

    Authors: Abba Musab Usman, Nuhu Muhammad Danjuma, Jamilu Ya’u, Muslim Muhammad Ahmad, Zakariyya Alhassan, Yusuf Muhammad Abubakar and Mubarak Hussaini Ahmad

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:118

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Salinity is one of the major limiting abiotic stresses that decrease crop production worldwide. To recommend genotypes for cultivation under saline stress conditions, a comprehensive understanding of the genet...

    Authors: Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh, Sara Sanjani, Hamidreza Nikkhah-Chamanabad, Mohammad Reza Mehrvar, Ameneh Asadi and Ashkboos Amini

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:117

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Application of organic amendments could improve soil properties as well as controlling of soil-borne pathogens. Soil amendments with dry powders of six plant species materials, i.e. caraway seeds, fennel seeds, g...

    Authors: Hassan Abd-El-Khair and Wafaa M. A. El-Nagdi

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:116

    Content type: Research

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  35. Tetracarpidium conophorum is one of the numerous folklore medicinal plants for managing diabetes but the mode of action and bioactive compounds responsible for the antihyperglycemic property are missing in litera...

    Authors: Bamidele Stephen Ajilore, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola and Abiodun Olusoji Owoade

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:115

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The release of pollutant gases into the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities exert effect on biological systems at many levels. Combustion engines such as those in vehicles and power generators p...

    Authors: Abiola Titilola Aborisade, Kayode Peter Balogun and Oluwole Olakunle Oladele

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:113

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. The new coronavirus disease appeared at the end of 2019, and it is now a global problem over the world. There are multiple epidemiologic indicators used for discussing the spread of pandemics, one of these ind...

    Authors: Marwan Al-Raeei

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:112

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  38. The oral lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) is a rare, soft-tissue, developmental cyst, initially presented by Gold in 1962 as a “branchial cleft cyst”. It may occur in the pancreas, tongue, neck, and other regions o...

    Authors: Sana Iqbal, Sufyan Ahmed and Mehwash Kashif

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:111

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ibrahim Abdallah, Alia Amer and Dalia El-Hefny

    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:108

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:77

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The NRC has to correspond to the country's key production and services sectors through the research conducted in different areas of science and technology, scientific consultation and training as well.

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The NRC mission is to conduct basic and applied research within the major fields of interest in order to develop production and services sectors.

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