A.O.A.C, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis.20th_edition.Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A
Abass SM, Mohamed HM (2011) Alleviation of adverse effects of drought stress on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. Bangladesh J Botany 41:75–83
Abd Elhamid ME, Sadak MS, Tawfik MM (2018) Glutathione treatment alleviate salinity adverse effects on growth, some biochemical aspects, yield quantity and nutritional value of chickpea plant. Sci Fed J Global Warming 2(2):1–11
Abdelhamid MT, Sadak MS, Schmidhalter URS, El-Saady AM (2013) Interactive effects of salinity stress and nicotinamide on physiological and biochemical parameters of faba bean plant. Acta biologica Colombiana 18(3):499–510
Ahmed CB, Rouina BB, Sensoy S, Boukhriss M, Abdullah FB (2010) Exogenous proline effects on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant defense system of young olive tree. J Agricult Food Chem 58(7):4216–4222
Algam S, Xie G, Li B, Yu S, Su T, Larsen J (2010) Effects of Paenibacillus strains and chitosan on plant growth promotion and control of Ralstonia wilt in tomato. J Plant Pathol 92:593–600
Al-Hetar MY, Zainal Abidin MA, Sariah M, Wong MY (2011) Antifungal activity of chitosan against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. J Appl Polym Sci 120:2434–2439
Ali, A. and F. Alqurainy, 2006. Activities of antioxidants in plants under environmental stress. In: Motohashi N (ed.), The lutein-prevention and treatment for diseases. Trans-world Research Network, India PP.187- 256.
Ali Q, Ashraf M, Anwar F (2010) Seed composition and seed oil antioxidant activity of maize under water stress. J Am Oil Chem Soc 87:1179–1187
Anjum F, M Yaseen, E Rasul, A Wahid, S Anjum, 2003. Water stress in barley. I. Effect on chemical composition and chlorophyll content. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 40: 45-49.
Anjum SA, Xie XY, Wang LC, Saleem MF, Man C, Lei W (2011) Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. Afr J Agric Res 6(9):2026–2032
Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216
Bakhoum GSH, Sadak MS (2016) Physiological role of glycine betaine on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown under salinity stress, inter. J. of Chem. Tech. Res. 9(3):158–171
Banon SJ, Ochoa J, Franco JA, Alarcon JJ, Sanchez-Blanco M (2006) Hardening of oleander seedlings by deficit irrigation and low air humidity. Environ Exp Bot 56:36–43
Bates LS, Waldan RP, Teare LD (1973) Rapid determination of free proline under water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207
Behboudi F, Tahmasebi Sarvestani Z, Zaman Kassaee M, Modares Sanavi SAM, Sorooshzadeh A, Ahmadi SB (2018) Evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles effects on yield and yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under late season drought stress. J Water Environ Nanotechnol 3(1):22–39. https://doi.org/10.22090/jwent.2018.01.003
Bohnert HJ, RJ Jensen, 1996. Strategies for engineering water stress tolerance in plants. Trends Biotechnol 14(3):89–97. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-7799(96)80929-2.
Bohra JS, Dorffling K (1993) Potassium nutrition of rice Oryza sativa L. varieties under NaCl salinity. Plant Soil 152:299–303
Chibu H, Shibayama H, 2003. Effect of chitosan application on growth of several crops. In chitin and chitosan in life science, Uragami, T.,K. Kurita and T. Fukamizo (Eds).Kodansha Scientific LTd., Japan, ISBN:4-906464-43-0,pp235-239.
Chookhongkha YN, Miyagawa S, Jirakiattikul Y, Photchanachai S, 2012. Chili growth and seed productivity as affected by chitosan.Proceedings of the International Conference on Agriculture Technology and Food Sciences, Manila, Philippines. Manila, Philippines.
Danil AD, George CM (1972) Peach seed dormancy in relation to endogenous inhibitors and applied growth substances. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 17:621–624
Dias AMA, Cortez AR, Barsan MM, Santos JB, Brett CMA, De Sousa HC (2013) Development of greener multi-responsive chitosan bio-materials doped with biocompatible ammonium ionic liquids. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1(11):1480–1492
Dzung NA, Khanh VTP, Dzung TT (2011) Re-search on impact of chitosan oligomers on bio-physical characteristics, growth, development and drought resistance of coffee. Carbohydr Polym 84:751–755
El-Shintinawy E, El-Shourbagy MN (2001) Alleviation of changes in protein metabolism in NaCl-stressed wheat seedlings by thiamine. Biol Plant 44(4):541–545
FAO, 2000. Global Network on Integrated Soil Management for Sustain-Able Use of Salt-Affected Soils, Rome, Italy, http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/spush.
Farouk S, Amany AR. 2012. Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of chitosan under water stress. Egypt J Biol 2012;14(1):14-16.
Gomez AK, Gomez AA, 1984. Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research.2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Guan Y, Hu JJ, Wang XJ, Shao CX (2009) Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seeding growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 10:427–433
Hadwiger LA (2013) Plant science review: multi-ple effects of chitosan on plant systems: solid sci-ence or hype. Plant Sci 208:42–49
Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Teixeira da Silva JA, Fujita M (2012) Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defense is a key factor. In: Bandi V, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Mandapaka M (eds) Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 261–316
Hasanuzzaman M, K Nahar, M. Fujita, 2013. Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt induced damages, in Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress, P. Ahmad,M.M. Azooz, and M. N. V. Prasad, Eds., pp. 25–87, Springer, New York, NY,USA.
Homme PM, Gonzalez B, Billard J (1992) Carbohydrate content, frutane and sucrose enzyme activities in roots, stubble and leaves of rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) as affected by sources / link modification after cutting. J Plant Physiol 140:282–291
Hoque MA, Banu MNA, Nakamura Y, Shimoishi Y, Murata Y (2008) Proline and glycinebetaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 165(8):813–824
Hosseini SM, Hasanloo T, Mohammadi S (2014) Physiological characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in 2 spring canola (Brassica napus, L.) cultivars under drought stress conditions. Turk J Agric For 38:1–8
Huang C, He W, Guo J, Chang X, Su P, Zhang L (2005) Increased sensitivity to salt stress in ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. J Exp Bot 56:3041–3049
Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2013) The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan. J. Sci. Food Agr 93(7):1699–1705
Jasim AH, WM Abo Al Timmen, AS Abid, 2016. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and free endogenous hormones of primed radish (Raphanus Sativus, L.) seeds with salicylic acid. Int J Chem Tech Res CODEN (USA): 0974-4290. ISSN(Online) 9(06):339–346.
Katiyar D, Hemantaranjan A, Singh B, Bhanu NA (2014) A future perspective in crop protection: chitosan and its oligosaccharides. Adv Plants Agric Res 1:06
Khan R, Manzoor N, Zia A, Ahmad I, Ullah A, Shah SM, Naeem M, Sh A, Khan IH, Zia D, Malik S (2018) Exogenous application of chitosan and humic acid effects on plant growth and yield of pea (Pisum sativum). Inter J Biosci 12(5):43–50 http://www.innspub.net
Kim JH, Kim KY, Kang EJ, Lee K, Kim JM, Park KT, Shin K, Hyun B, Jeong HJ (2013) Enhancement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation efficiency by phytoplankton in the future coastal ocean. Biogeosciences 10:7525–7535
Larsen P, Harbo A, Klungron S, Ashein TA (1962) On the biosynthesis of some indole compounds in Acetobacter Xylinum. Physiol Plant 15:552–565
Li R, He J, Xie H, Wang W, Bose S, Sun Y, Hu J, Yin H (2019) Effects of chitosan nanoparticles on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Inter J Biol Macromol 126:91–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.118
Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C (2001) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. In: Wrolstad RE, Acree TE, An H, Decker EA, Penner MH, Reid DS, Schwartz SJ, Shoemaker CF, Sporns P (eds) Current protocols in food analytical chemistry (CPFA). Wiley, New York, pp: F4.3.1-F4.3.8.
Limpanavech P, Chaiyasuta S, Vongpromek R, Pichyangkura R, Khunwasi C, Chadchawan S, Lotrakul P, Bunjongrat R, Chaidee A, Bangyeekhun T (2008) Chitosan effects on floral production, gene expression, and anatomical changes in the Dendrobium orchid. Sci Hortic 116(1):65–72
Lizarraga-Pauli EG, Torres-Pacheco I, Moreno Martinez E, Miranda-Castro SP (2011) Chitosan application in maize (Zea mays) to counteract the effects of abiotic stress at seedling level. Afr J Biotechnol 10(34):6439–6446
Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444(2):139–158
Manchanda G, Garg N (2008) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plant 30(5):595–618
Michalak A (2006) Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in plants growing under heavy metal stress. Plant Cell 15:523–530 CrossRef
Mondal MMA, Malek MA, Puteh AB, Ismail MR, Ashrafuzzaman M, Naher L (2012) Effect of foliar application of chitosan on growth and yield in okra. Aust J Crop 6:918–921
Munné-Bosch S, Alegre L (2000) The xanthophyll cycle is induced by light irrespective of water status in field-grown lavender (Lavandulastoechas) plants. Physiol Plant 108:147–151
Munns R, 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together,”New Phytologist, 167 (3): 645–663.
Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681
Nguyen Van S, Dinh Minh H, Nguyen Anh D (2013) Study on chitosan nanoparticles on biophysical char-acteristics and growth of Robusta coffee in green house. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2(4):289–294
Pandey HC, Baig MJ, Bhatt RK (2012) Effect of moisture stress on chlorophyll accumulation and nitrate reductase activity at vegetative and flowering stage in Avena species. Agric Sci Res J 2:111–118
Pereira AS, Silva PM, Olivera JL, Olivera HC, Fraceto LF (2017) Chitosan nanoparticles as carrier systems for the plant growth hormone gibbereillic acid. Collodis and Surfaces B: Bioenterfaces 150:141–152
Piotr S, Agnieszka Z (2014) Effect of chitosan on plant growth, flowering and corms yield of potted freesia. J Ecol Eng 15(3):97–102
Pitman MG, Läuchli A, 2002. Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystem,” in Salinity: Environment—Plants—Molecules, A. L¨auchli and U. L¨uttge, Eds., pp. 3–20, KluwerAcademic, Dodrecht, The Netherlands.
Pongprayoon W, Roytrakul S, Pichayangkura R, Chadchawan S (2013) The role of hydrogen peroxide in chitosan-induced resistance to osmotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 70(2):159–173
Rahman M, JA Mukta, AA Sabir, DR Gupta, M Mohi-Ud-Din, M Hasanuzzaman, et al. 2018. Chitosan biopolymer promotes yield and stimulates accumulation of antioxidants in strawberry fruit. PLoS One 13(9): e0203769. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203769.
Ramadan AA, EM Abd Elhamid and Sadak MS, 2019. Comparative study for the effect of arginine and sodium nitroprusside on sunflower plants grown under salinity stress conditions. Bull Natl Res Centre 43:118. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-019-0156-0
Ramaswamy A, Seeta RRS (2018) Effect of salinity stress on seedling growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes. Inter J of Biol Res 3(1):70–75
Sadak MS 2019. Physiological role of trehalose on enhancing salinity tolerance of wheat plant. Bull National Research Centre 43:38 https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-019-0077-y
Sadak Mervat Sh, Bakry A Bakry, 2020. Alleviation of drought stress by melatonin foliar treatment on two flax varieties under sandy soil, Physiol Mol Biol Plants 26(5):907–919.https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00789-z
Salachna P, Zawadzińska A (2014) Effect of chitosan on plant growth, flowering and corms yield of potted freesia. J Eco Eng 15(3):97–102. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993.1110223
Saxena SC, Kaur H, Verma P et al (2013) Osmoprotectants: potential for crop improvement under adverse conditions. In: PlantAcclimation to environmental stress. Springer, New York, NY, USA, pp 197–232
Singh S, Sinha S (2005) Accumulation of metals and its effects in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery waste. Ecotoxicol Environment Safe Orlando 62:118–127
Stroganov BP, 1962 Physiological basis of the salt tolerance of plants (under different types of soil salinization). Izd. Akad. Nauk. USSR, Moscow.
Sultana S, Islam M, Khatun A, Hassain A, Huque R (2017) Effect of foliar application of oligo-chitosan on growth, yield and quality of tomato and eggplant. Asian J Agric Res 11(2):36–42. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajar.2017.36.42
Sweet WJ, Morrison JC, Labaritch JM, Matthews MA (1990) Altered synthesis and composition of cell wall of grapevines Vitis vinifera L. during expression and growth inhibiting water deficits. Plant Cell Physiol 31:407–414
Tawfik MM, Badr EA, Ibrahim OM, Abd Elhamid EM, Sadak MS (2017) Biomass and some physiological aspects of Spartina patens grown under salt affected environment in South Sinai, inter. J Agric Res 12(1):17–26
Vartainan N, Hervochon P, Marcotte L, Larher F (1992) Proline accumulation during drought rhizogenesis in Brassica napus var. Oleifera Plant Physiol 140:623–628
Yemm EW, Cocking EC (1955) The determination of amino acids with ninhydrin. Analyst. 80:209–213
Yemm EW, Willis AJ (1954) The respiration of barley plants. IX The metabolism of roots during assimilation of nitrogen New Phytotol 55:229–234