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Table 1 Gender-specific participants’ characteristics according to the presence of sleep disorders

From: The prevalence and determining factors of sleep disorders vary by gender in the Egyptian public officials: a large cross-sectional study

  Female public officials P valuea Male public officials P valuea
No sleep disorders, n = 1198 Sleep disorders, n = 425 No sleep disorders, n = 1300 Sleep disorders, n = 220
Age, yb 38 (30–47) 35 (29–45)  < 0.01 45 (35–54) 38 (3–49)  < 0.01
Urban residence, % 58.7 65.4 0.01 34.8 48.0  < 0.01
Education,%     < 0.01    0.45
  ≤ High school 15.8 7.3 26.2 22.7
 Vocational 19.0 18.8 23.5 22.7
 University or above 65.2 73.9 50.3 54.6
Occupation, %     < 0.01    0.40
 Professional 63.6 72.7 47.1 51.8
 Clerk 25.1 18.6 35.3 33.2
 Manual or technical 11.3 8.7 17.6 15.0
Household income, %     < 0.01    0.10
 Lowest 26.7 20.2 23.7 17.4
 Middle 71.5 75.7 75.0 80.8
 Highest 1.8 4.1 1.3 1.8
Smoking habit, %    0.91    0.71
 Never 99.2 99.4 61.5 61.4
 Former 0.4 0.3 29.2 30.9
 Current 0.4 0.3 9.3 7.7
Physical activity, METs unitb 45 (42–57) 45 (39–57) 0.62 49 (43–58) 50 (44–57) 0.73
Body mass index, Kg/m2 b 27.6 (24.6–31.3) 28.1 (25.9–32.0) 0.02 26.9 (24.8–29.0) 27.4 (25.0–30.1) 0.03
Marital status, %    0.82     < 0.01
 Single 14.4 16.0 7.5 15.0
 Divorced 2.6 2.8 1.0 0.9
 Widowed 5.2 4.5 0.9 0.5
 Married 77.8 76.7 90.6 83.6
Employed spouse, % 30.9 18.8  < 0.01 37.8 32.9 0.16
Family type, %    0.54    0.05
 Nuclear 74.4 73.9 84.6 78.6
 Multigeneration 24.3 25.4 13.8 19.1
 Living alone 1.3 0.7 1.6 2.3
Total family members, nb 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 0.70 4 (3–5) 3 (2–5)  < 0.01
Number of minors in the family, nb 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.29 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.89
Job hours, h/db 6 (6–8) 6 (6–8) 0.71 8 (6–8) 8 (6–8) 0.97
Night shift job, % 15.1 19.5 0.03 21.5 26.4 0.11
Extra job, % 11.9 17.9  < 0.01 41.7 61.4  < 0.01
High job demands, % 51.4 74.6  < 0.01 52.2 72.3  < 0.01
Low job control, % 46.0 71.1  < 0.01 51.5 71.8  < 0.01
Low worksite social support, % 39.9 47.4  < 0.01 48.2 76.8  < 0.01
Low family social support, % 55.5 69.2  < 0.01 57.2 76.4  < 0.01
Chronic disease history, % 25.5 31.5 0.02 23.7 27.0 0.05
Depression history, % 12.5 21.9  < 0.01 7.2 18.6  < 0.01
  1. A frequency of any sleep disorder of the Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire of > 4 (> = 15 days per the previous month) was used to define the group of public officials with sleep disorders
  2. aAccording to the Mann–Whitney or the Chi-square test
  3. bMedian (interquartile range), all such variables