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Table 1 Distribution of patients in the study group in terms of characteristics

From: Survival in patients with multiple myeloma: evaluation of possible associations with bone marrow fibrosis and investigation of factors independently associated with survival

  Total (n = 72) Bone marrow fibrosis grade
0 (n = 15) 1–4 (n = 55) p
Age (n = 72) 62.43 ± 13.41 63.87 ± 14.28 62.11 ± 13.45 0.659
 < 60 28 (38.89%) 5 (33.33%) 22 (40.00%) 0.864
 ≥ 60 44 (61.11%) 10 (66.67%) 33 (60.00%)  
Sex (n = 72)
 Male 39 (54.17%) 7 (46.67%) 32 (58.18%) 0.615
 Female 33 (45.83%) 8 (53.33%) 23 (41.82%)  
Concomitant malignancy (n = 72) 2 (2.78%) 1 (6.67%) 1 (1.82%) 0.385
Comorbidity (n = 72) 46 (63.89%) 12 (80.00%) 34 (61.82%) 0.313
 Diabetes mellitus 7 (9.72%) 1 (6.67%) 6 (10.91%) 1.000
 Hypertension 23 (31.94%) 5 (33.33%) 18 (32.73%) 1.000
 Heart disease 10 (13.89%) 3 (20.00%) 7 (12.73%) 0.437
 Kidney disease 9 (12.50%) 2 (13.33%) 7 (12.73%) 1.000
 Pulmonary disease 7 (9.72%) 1 (6.67%) 6 (10.91%) 1.000
 Thyroid disease 4 (5.56%) 1 (6.67%) 3 (5.45%) 1.000
 Others 17 (23.61%) 6 (40.00%) 11 (20.00%) 0.171
Type (n = 72)     
 IgG kappa 27 (37.50%) 6 (40.00%) 20 (36.36%) 0.343
 IgG lambda 16 (22.22%) 2 (13.33%) 13 (23.64%)  
 IgA kappa 7 (9.72%) 1 (6.67%) 6 (10.91%)  
 IgA lambda 8 (11.11%) 1 (6.67%) 7 (12.73%)  
 Light chain kappa 9 (12.50%) 2 (13.33%) 7 (12.73%)  
 Light chain lambda 5 (6.94%) 3 (20.00%) 2 (3.64%)  
Stage (n = 66)     
 Silent 2 (3.03%) 1 (7.69%) 1 (1.96%) 0.079
 Stage I (A) 11 (16.67%) 5 (38.46%) 6 (11.76%)  
 Stage II (A/B) 6 (9.09%) 1 (7.69%) 5 (9.80%)  
 Stage III (A/B) 47 (71.21%) 6 (46.15%) 39 (76.47%)  
Haemoglobin (n = 71) 10.32 ± 2.23 10.06 ± 2.44 10.40 ± 2.16 0.604
Lytic lesion (n = 52) 33 (63.46%) 4 (40.00%) 28 (70.00%) 0.138
Plasmacytoma (n = 70) 22 (31.43%) 6 (42.86%) 16 (29.63%) 0.356
Calcium (n = 49) 9.29 (8.02–14.42) 9.30 (8.02–11.02) 9.30 (8.18–14.42) 0.533
Hypercalcemia (n = 68) 9 (13.24%) 1 (7.69%) 8 (15.09%) 0.675
High creatinine (> 2) (n = 71) 18 (25.35%) 2 (13.33%) 16 (29.63%) 0.321
LDH (n = 62) 201 (63–541) 211.5 (137–350) 201 (63–541) 0.737
Genetic mutation (n = 28) 6 (21.43%) 0 (0.00%) 6 (27.27%) 0.555
 del 17p (n = 28) 3 (10.71%) 0 (0.00%) 3 (13.64%) 1.000
 t (4;14) (n = 27) 1 (3.70%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (4.76%) 1.000
 t (14;16) (n = 25) 1 (4.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (5.00%) 1.000
 t (14;20) (n = 14) 1 (7.14%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (10.00%) 1.000
Treatment (n = 72) 68 (94.44%) 14 (93.33%) 52 (94.55%) 1.000
Treatment (first-line) (n = 68)     
 VAD 28 (41.18%) 4 (28.57%) 22 (42.31%) 0.410
 VCD 16 (23.53%) 2 (14.29%) 14 (26.92%)  
 VAD + VCD 2 (2.94%) 1 (7.14%) 1 (1.92%)  
 VD 8 (11.76%) 3 (21.43%) 5 (9.62%)  
 Others 14 (20.59%) 4 (28.57%) 10 (19.23%)  
Treatment response (first-line) (n = 58)     
 PD 7 (12.07%) 1 (7.69%) 6 (13.95%) 0.932
 SD 3 (5.17%) 1 (7.69%) 2 (4.65%)  
 PR 15 (25.86%) 3 (23.08%) 10 (23.26%)  
 VGPR 11 (18.97%) 2 (15.38%) 9 (20.93%)  
 CR 22 (37.93%) 6 (46.15%) 16 (37.21%)  
Progression after treatment (first-line) (n = 59) 53 (89.83%) 12 (85.71%) 40 (90.91%) 0.624
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) (n = 71) 35 (49.30%) 6 (40.00%) 27 (50.00%) 0.694
ASCT response (n = 28)     
 SD 1 (3.57%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0.552
 PR 1 (3.57%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (5.00%)  
 VGPR 8 (28.57%) 1 (16.67%) 7 (35.00%)  
 CR 18 (64.29%) 5 (83.33%) 12 (60.00%)  
Progression after ASCT (n = 32) 30 (93.75%) 6 (100.00%) 23 (92.00%) 1.000
Number of treatment lines (n = 72)     
 0 4 (5.56%) 1 (6.67%) 3 (5.45%) 0.370
 1 18 (25.0%) 6 (40.00%) 12 (21.82%)  
 2 25 (34.72%) 5 (33.33%) 20 (36.36%)  
 3 15 (20.83%) 1 (6.67%) 13 (23.64%)  
 4 5 (6.94%) 2 (13.33%) 3 (5.45%)  
 5 5 (6.94%) 0 (0.00%) 4 (7.27%)  
Response after last-line therapy (n = 55)     
Relapse after CR 3 (5.45%) 1 (7.69%) 2 (5.00%) 0.365
 PD 17 (30.91%) 3 (23.08%) 13 (32.50%)  
 SD 2 (3.64%) 0 (0.00%) 2 (5.00%)  
 PR 6 (10.91%) 3 (23.08%) 3 (7.50%)  
 VGPR 7 (12.73%) 0 (0.00%) 6 (15.00%)  
 CR 20 (36.36%) 6 (46.15%) 14 (35.00%)  
Follow-up time (months) (n = 72) 31 (2–125) 27 (4–113) 31 (2–125) 0.864
 One-year survival 58 (80.56%) 14 (93.33%) 42 (76.36%) 0.273
 Two-year survival 46 (63.89%) 11 (73.33%) 34 (61.82%) 0.602
 Three-year survival 33 (45.83%) 6 (40.00%) 26 (47.27%) 0.835
 Four-year survival 23 (31.94%) 4 (26.67%) 18 (32.73%) 0.761
 Five-year survival 13 (18.06%) 3 (20.00%) 10 (18.18%) 1.000
Final status (n = 72)     
 Alive 47 (65.28%) 11 (73.33%) 36 (65.45%) 0.771
 Exitus 24 (33.33%) 4 (26.67%) 18 (32.73%)  
 Died during follow-up 1 (1.39%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.82%)  
  1. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation or median (minimum–maximum) for continuous variables and frequency (percent) for categorical variables, according to the normality of the distribution