Skip to main content

Table 1 Articles that misused ANOVA from the current issues of health-related journals published by the African Journals Online

From: Misuse of analysis of variance in African biomedical journals: a call for more vigilance

S. No. Journal Dependent variable type Amount of categorical independent variable Independence of observation Post hoc test ANOVA misuse References
1 Afri. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol Continuous 6 Yes No Did not perform ANOVA Adeyemi et al. (2020)
2 Afri. J. Reprod. Health Continuous 3 Yes Yes One-way ANOVA Lee et al. (2020)
3 Afri. J. Complement Altern Med Continuous 4 Yes No Used t test instead of one-way ANOVA Iikasha et al. (2019)
4 Afri. J. Urology Continuous 3 Yes No Authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Ahmad et al. (2018)
5 Afri. J. Urology Continuous 2 Yes Yes Authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Ali et al. (2018)
6 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 3 Yes Yes Authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Assaad et al. (2018)
7 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 4 Yes Yes Authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Korany et al. (2018)
8 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 5 Yes No The authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Emara et al. (2018)
9 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 4 Yes Yes Did not specify the type of ANOVA used Khowailed et al. (2018)
10 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 4 Yes No The authors did not mention the type of ANOVA they used and did not use means for ANOVA Ephraim et al. (2018)
11 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 4 Yes No The data showed sig among groups without a post hoc analysis Sherbiny et al. (2018)
12 Alexandria J. Med Continuous 2 Yes No Mentioned ANOVA though did not perform ANOVA and was not supposed to perform ANOVA Igbigbi et al. (2018)
13 Anat. J. Afri Continuous 2 Yes No Mentioned ANOVA though did not perform ANOVA and was not supposed to perform ANOVA Idenya and Gichangi (2020)
14 Arch. Med. Biomed. Res Continuous 3 Yes No Mentioned ANOVA test but authors performed chi-square test David et al. (2018)
15 Arch. Med. Biomed. Res Continuous 4 Yes Yes Authors did not mention the type of ANOVA used Akindele et al. (2018)
16 Egyptian J. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol Continuous 3 Yes No Mentioned ANOVA though did not perform ANOVA and was not supposed to perform ANOVA Osman et al. (2019)
17 Ethiopian J. Heal. Dev Continuous 4 Yes Presumably yes. But the authors did not mention the post hoc The type of ANOVA was mentioned Han et al. (2020)
18 IJBAIR Continuous 1 Not available No Wrong mention of ANOVA. Authors did not perform ANOVA Muhammad et al. (2018)
19 IJBAIR Continuous 5 Yes No Means were not used for the one-way ANOVA Oise et al. (2018)
20 IJHPR Continuous 4 Yes Yes, presumably. But the authors did not mention the post hoc The type of ANOVA test was not mentioned Iyomon et al. (2016)
21 J. Med. Biomed. Res Continuous 8   No The type of ANOVA test was not mentioned Ehwarieme and Anarado (2017)
22 Nig. J. Physiol. Sci Continuous 3 Yes No Authors mentioned ANOVA but used t test Ogunro et al. (2019)
23 Nig. J. Physiol. Sci Continuous 4 Yes Yes Did not mention the type of ANOVA Kunle-Alabi et al. (2019)
24 Nig. J. Physiol. Sci Continuous 6 Yes Yes Mentioned the use of two-way ANOVA, while the authors used one-way ANOVA Adeneye et al. (2019)
25 Res. J. Heal. Sci Continuous 4 Yes Yes Did not mention the type of ANOVA Sanni et al. (2020)
26 Res. J. Heal. Sci Continuous 5 Yes No Did not perform ANOVA correctly. The means of each group was not calculated Uduagbamen et al. (2020)
27 TJPR Continuous 2 Yes No Did not perform ANOVA and was not supposed to do so but the authors mentioned it Yuan et al. (2020)
  1. Checklist for correct use of ANOVA statistical test based on which all the articles assessed
  2. That each sample has been drawn independent from one another. This is usually verified in the method section of a research article
  3. That the dependent variable is continous
  4. For specific cases where the authors described the significant difference of a group from others in the discussion, they ought to have performed a post hoc test after the ANOVA
  5. That the type of ANOVA used is mentioned at least once in the article
  6. That the data sets analysed are means comprising of at least three scores per variable
  7. That the data set conforms with the type of ANOVA employed, e.g. mentioning one-way ANOVA where a data set having two categorical independent variable will be a misuse