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Table 1 Ethnomedicinal plants used in the management of cancer in Kenya

From: Medicinal plants used for treating cancer in Kenya: an ethnopharmacological overview

Family Local name Botanical name Part used Life form Mode of preparation (administration) Cancer treated Author (s)
Acanthaceae Ndakariat (Nandi) Acanthus pubescens (Oliv.) Engl L H Ash used Not specified Jeruto et al. (2008)
  Likhundu/Eshitoo Dicliptera laxata C. B. Clarke L H Infusion taken (4.5 g) twice daily for 1 week. Often prepared with A. gummifera and S. coccinea (leaves) Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Shikuduli Justicia betonica L WP H Infusion taken. Often prepared with M. pyrifolia (leaves & SB), H. africana (leaves & Rt) and P. africana (leaves, Rt & SB) Breast, skin colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Cheptereret (Nandi) Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims Bk H Pressed on the site, leading to production of a thick black substance Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
Aloeaceae Linakha Aloe volkensii Engl L S Infusion taken half a glass daily for 2 months. Topically applied on breast cancer wounds thrice daily until recovery Breast, colorectal, prostate, oesophageal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Kibiricha, Murucha, Sukurui (Meru) Aloe species NS H Not reported Prostrate Muriuki, (2011)
Amaranthaceae Beetroot (English) Beta vulgaris L Blb H Not reported Not specified Muriuki, (2011)
  Mbogiat (Nandi) Amaranthus graecizans L L H Paste applied topically Not specified Jeruto et al. (2008)
Anacardiaceae Mubindabindi (Mbeere) Lannea species NS T Not reported Prostate Muriuki, (2011)
  Liembe Mangifera indica L Rt, L, SB T Infusion (300 ml) taken thrice daily for 7 days. Often prepared with H. madagascariensis (SB), V. lasiopus (SB) and S. campanulata (SB & Rt) Skin, breast, throat Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Sungula Rhus vulgaris Meikle Rt, L, Fr T Pounded and boiled with C. papaya roots, taken 300 ml daily until recovery Breast, skin, stomach Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Annonaceae Mũtomoko (Kikuyu) Annona cherimola Mill Bk T Decoction taken Not specified Kamau et al. (2016)
  Not reported Anona muricata L Fr T Not reported Breast, cervical Gathura (2017)
  Ndonga (Mbere) Ovariodendron anisatum Verdc Rt S Decoction taken Breast, prostate Kareru et al. (2007)
Apocynaceae Kelwo/Ng’wono (Marakweta) Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.)
Codd
Bk, Rt S Decoction taken. Powdered bark and roots applied topically for cancerous wounds Not specified Kigen et al. (2017)
  Legetetiot, Tamuryekiat (Nandi) Carissa edulis (Forsk.) Vahl Rt H Decoction Not specified Jeruto et al. (2008)
  Mukamuria (Meru), Mukawa (Embu, Mbeere) Carissa spinarum L L S Decoction taken Breast Mbuni et al. (2020) and Muriuki (2011)
  Olubinu Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don WP H Infusion (150 ml) taken or powder topically applied. Usually taken with Sesbania sesban (whole plant) Oesophageal, stomach, throat Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Kaparar (Markweta), Mdondo Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten SB, Rt T Powder mixed with alcohol and used topically in washing the wounds once daily for 1 month. Boiled, dried, powder burnt to soot and licked. Decoction taken Breast Kigen et al. (2017), Mbuni et al. (2020) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Asclepiadaceae Sinendet (Nandi) Periploca linearifolia Dill. & Rich Rt L Milky latex decoction/exudate used Not specified Jeruto et al. (2008)
Asphodelaceae Soap aloe (English) Aloe saponaria (Synonym: A. maaculata) NS H Not reported Breast, colon, lung, liver Gathura (2017)
Asteraceae Chepkotiwot (Marakwet), Chepaswoi (Pokot), Ologoye (Luhya), Igwisi Bidens pilosa L L, Rt, St H Decoction drunk. Infusion (150 mL) prepared with O. sinuatum (Rt, leaves and stem) taken thrice a day for 2 weeks Skin, throat Mbuni et al. (2020) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Liposhe Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H Walker L H Infusion (150 mL) taken twice daily until recovery. Also used with A. gummifera and M. lutea stem barks Breast, throat, squamous cell carcinoma of the gums Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Oulfuta Galinsoga parviflora Cav L H Infusion (300 mL) taken twice daily for 2 weeks. Usually taken with O. gratissimum, T. rhomboidea and S. didymobotyra leaves Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mũthũnga (Kikuyu, Embu), Kipche (Nandi) Launaea cornuta (Hochst. ex Oliv. & Hiern) C. Jeffrey Rt, L, St, WP H Decoction taken. For throat cancer, Rt prepared with R. myriocoides and T. asiatica roots. Stem chewed for the same. For breast cancer, aerial parts (L & St) are boiled and steam inhaled Throat, breast, prostate Kamau et al. (2016), Kareru et al. (2007), Kigen et al. (2014) and Onyancha et al. (2019)
  Ingwe, Ingoyi, Enguu Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze L, SB, RB S Leaf powder taken as an infusion (4.5 g) in hot water for a month. SB infusion (150 mL) taken twice daily until recovery. Used with S. campanulata (Rt & SB), C. sumatrensis (leaves) and J. procera (SB) Breast, skin, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Muturutwa (Meru) Solanecio angulatus NS T Not reported Prostate Muriuki (2011)
  Livokho Solanecio mannii (Hook. f) C. Jeffrey L S Infusion (150 mL) taken once daily. Often taken with M. pyrifolia (SB & leaves), Z. rubescens (leaves & RB), C. macrostachyus (leaves) and S. procera (leaves) Breast, skin, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C.Jeffrey L, St H Steamed in a water bath while in a nylon paper and then topically applied on breast cancer wounds by rubbing. Used with C. serpens (SB & leaves) Breast, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mũthũnga (Kikuyu) Sonchus oleraceus L Rt, L H Decoction taken Not specified Kamau et al. (2016)
  Not reported Vernonia adoensis WP S NP Breast, cervical, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Mucatha (Embu, Mbeere), Shiroho Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm SB S Infusion of 30 g is taken twice daily for a week. Often used with H. madagascariensis (SB) and S. campanulata (SB & Rt) Colorectal Muriuki (2011) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Bignoniaceae Omurabe, Morabe Kigelia africana Lam. Benth SB, L T Leaf powder applied topically. Infusion (300 ml) taken twice daily for 3 months Breast, skin, uterine Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Lusiola, Shisimbali Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K.Schum SB T Infusion (150 ml) taken twice daily until recovery. Often prepared with A. gummifera (SB) and C. sumatrensis (leaves) Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Muthulio/Nandi flame/Mutsuria Spathodea campanulata P
Beauv. ssp.nilotica (Seem)
L, Rt, SB T Decoction/decoction in meat soup taken/an alcohol infusion taken, 4.5 g (1 tsp) thrice daily for 4 weeks. Sometimes used with P. africana (Rt & SB), M. pyrifolia (leaves) and H. madagascariensis (Rt & SB) Bone, breast, cervical, colorectal, skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Boraginaceae Muringa (Embu, Mbeere, Meru) Cordia africana Lam NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Canellaceae Not reported Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl SB T Not reported Colon Gathura (2017)
  Muthiga (Embu, Mbeere), Musunui, thurunui (Meru) Warburgia ugandensis Sprague Bk, Rt, L T Decoction taken Prostate Kamau et al. (2016) and Muriuki (2011)
Capparaceae Kiare (Mbeere), Muthangira (Meru) Boscia coriacea Pax NS H Not reported Prostrate Muriuki (2011)
Capparidaceae Mukarakara (Mbeere, Meru) Capparis tomentose Lam NS S Not reported Prostrate Muriuki (2011)
Caricaceae Lipopayi Carica papaya L L, Fr, Rt H Milky tree juice used to wash the wound. Leaf powder topically applied daily for 7 days. Infusion taken (300 ml) thrice daily for 1.5 months. Often prepared with S. campanulata (SB & Rt), C. sumatrensis (leaves), B. micrantha (SB & roots) and Aloe spp (leaves) Breast, cervical, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Celastraceae Shikhalikhanga Hippocratea africana (Willd.) Loes L, Rt S Leaf powder mixed with root infusion (150 ml) taken once daily until recovery. Usually prepared with Z. rubescens (leaves & RB), B. micrantha (leaves & SB), S. campanulata (leaves & SB) and T. emetica (SB & Rt) Breast, skin, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Muthuthi (Kikuyu), Muraga (Mbere, Embu) Maytenus obscura (A. Rich) L, Rt S Decoction mixed with soup drunk Breast, prostate Kareru et al. (2007), Kokwaro (1993), and Onyancha et al. (2019)
  Muthuthi (Kikuyu) Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell L S Not reported Colon Gathura (2017)
Combretaceae Not reported Combretum tanaense R T Not reported Breast Onyancha et al. (2018)
  Kaloswet (Nandi), Muuku (Kamba) Terminalia brownii Fresen Bk T Pressed on the site, leading to production of a thick black substance Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
Convolvulaceae Ndirande/Lilande Ipomoea cairica (L.) L, Rt S Powder applied topically Breast, skin, cervical Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Cucurbitaceae Marenge (Embu, Mbeere, Meru), Kirenge (some Mbeere) Curcubita maxima Duschesne NS H Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Cheserya (Marakwet) Lilande (Luhya), Libobola Momordica foetida Schumach L, AP C Crushed and mixed with water used to take a bath. Infusion (4.5 g) taken daily in tea leaves until recovery. Usually prepared with I. cairica (Rt) and S. aculeastrum (Fr & Rt) Cervical, breast Mbuni et al. (2020) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Cupressaceae Muthithinda (Mbeere) Cupressus lusitanica NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Torokwo (Marakwet), Omusembe Juniperus procera Endl Bk, Rt, SB T SB made into capsules and infusion taken (1 capsule/day) for 10 days. Usually used with C. papaya (Rt & leaves), C. sumatrensis (leaves), M. pyrifolia (leaves) and C. frutescens (fruit cover) Breast, throat, squamous carcinoma of the gum Kigen et al. (2017) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Dracaenaceae Kithare (Embu) Dracaena steudneri Engl NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Ebernaceae Kelelwa (Tugen) Croton dichogamus Pax NS S Not reported Not specified Rufford (2020)
  Kapcheptuin (Marakweta) Euclea divinorum Hiern Fr T Chewed Not specified Kigen et al. (2017)
Euphorbiaceae Mukwego (Embu, Mbeere, Meru), Shikangania Bridelia micrantha Baill. (Hochst) L, Rt, SB T Powder infusion (300 mL) taken thrice daily for 3 months. Used often with P. africana (SB & Rt), S. guineense (Bk), S. campanulata (SB & Rt) and C. serpens (SB) Cervical, breast, skin, colorectal Muriuki (2011) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Musutsu Croton macrostachyus Delile L, SB T Powder infusion (300 mL) taken thrice daily for 2 months. Taken with Z. rubescens (RB & leaves), P. africana (Rt & SB) and H. madagascariensis (SB) Colorectal, skin, breast Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Gikega, mukega (Mbeere), kariaria (Embu) Euphorbia tirucalli L NS S Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Mukururu (Embu, Mbeere) Flueggea virosa (Willd.) Voigt Rt T Decoction taken Prostate, breast Kareru et al. (2007), Muriuki (2011), Onyancha et al. (2019)
  Mukarati Macaranga kilimandscharica NS S Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Lusarisari Phyllanthus fischeri Pax L, SB S Infusion (150 mL) taken once daily until recovery. Used with M. pyrifolia (leaves & SB), C. macrostachyus (leaves), H. madagascariensis (SB) and S. campanulata (SB) Breast, skin, colorectal Kokwaro (1993) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Musasa Shirakiopsis elliptica (Hochst.) Esser. Synonym: Sapium ellipticum (Hochst.krauss) Pax Bk, L T Powder (4.5 g) infusion taken for a month. Often prepared with M. azedarach (leaves), M. pyrifolia (leaves), Z. rubescens (bark), and S. campanulata (bark) Colorectal, oesophageal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Isambakhalu Tragia brevipes Pax L S Powder in hot water taken (900 mL) daily until recovery Prostate, breast, leukemia Gathura, (2017) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Fabaceae Ndirakalu Abrus precatorius L. sspafricanus Verdc Rt, Sd T Infusion (150 mL) taken twice daily until recovery. Often prepared together with S. aculeastrum leaves and fruits Skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Omubeli (Luo) Albizia coriaria (Welw. Ex) Oliver Bk, L T Poultice from leaf powder applied topically twice daily for skin cancer. Bark infusion taken (600 ml) daily for a week Breast, skin, uterine Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Musenzeri/Mukhonzuli Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) L, SB T Infusion (150 mL) taken twice daily until recovery. Used with M. lutea (SB) and C. sumatrensis (leaves) Throat, skin Dharani and Yenesew (2010) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Albizia schimperiana SB T Not reported Not specified Kokwaro (1976)
  Chuiya (Marakweta) Acacia hockii De Wild Bk, Rt T Decoction/ powder used Not specified Kigen et al. (2017)
  Not reported Acacia mearnsii De Wild WP T Not reported Breast, cervical, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Olunyili Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke L H Powder applied topically at 3-day interval or infusion (75 ml) taken daily for 2 weeks. Usually boiled with leaves of T. rhomboidei and S. rhombifolia Uterine, skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the gums Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Cassia abbreviata Oliv RB T Not reported Breast, cervical, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Mkithunga (Giriama) Cassia afrofistula Brenan Rt, B T Boiled and taken Ovarian, prostate Muniafu et al. (2014)
  Mubuti, (Embu, Mbeere), Muuti (Meru) Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Maua kulanganya Glycine wightii (wight &Arn.) L C Powder applied topically. Possess high preventive ability Breast Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Indigofera arrecta A. Rich L H Not reported Breast, cervical, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Not reported Indigofera swaziensis Bolus Rt S Decoction drunk Throat Onyancha et al. (2019)
  N’gechebchat (Nandi) Leucas calostachys Oliv Rt S Decoction with roots of T. asiatica, R. myriocoides and T. grandifolia taken Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
  Mukui (Embu, Mbeere) Newtonia buchananii NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Omuvinuvinu, Luvinu Senna didymobotrya (Fresen) Irwin & Barney L T Infusion (300 ml) taken twice daily for 2 weeks. Used with leaves of O. gratissimum, G. parviflora and T. rhomboidei Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Omukhule, Olukhulila mbusi, Lohori Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr WP S Powder applied topically. Concoction (150 ml) taken twice a day for 3 weeks Throat, uterine, skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mkwadzu (Swahili) Tamarindus indica L Fr T Used with Pennisetum glaucum (grain) Liver, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Len’gnet (Nandi) Vachelia xanthophloea Bk T Pressed on the site, leading to production of a thick black substance Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
Francoaceae Kipset (Markwet) Bersama abyssinica Fresen Rt T Decoction taken Not specified Mbuni et al. (2020)
Hydnoraceae Ndonga or Mutumurathi (Embu) Hydnora abyssinica Schwein f RZ H Whole RZ decoction drunk with soup Prostate, breast Onyancha et al. (2019)
Hypericaceae Musila, Munamusayi Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir SB, Rt T Infusion (300 ml) taken thrice daily for 3 months. Used with Z. gilleti (SB), S. campanulata (SB & Rt), P. africana (SB) and V. lasiopus (SB) Breast, skin, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Lamiaceae Kwamatsai Fuerstia africana T.C.E. Fr L, St, Rt S Powder (30 g) infusion taken (75 ml) twice a day until finished. This is repeated until recovery. Powder may be applied topically Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Ouwali Ocimum gratissimum L L H Infusion from shade-dried leaves (300 mL) taken twice daily for 2 weeks. Used sometimes with leaves of G. parviflora, S. didymobotyra and T. rhomboidea Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Liavacado Persea americana Mill L T Powder (0.45 g) taken orally thrice daily until recovery or powder is licked Prostate, breast, colorectal, skin Muriuki (2011) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Muonyi Salvia coccinea (L.) Murr L H Infusion taken, twice daily for a month. Maybe dried indoors and powder applied topically. Often boiled with D. laxata and A. gummifera leaves Breast, oesophageal, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Tetradenia riparia L H Not reported Prostate Gathura (2017)
Lauraceae Muthaiti (Embu, Mbeere), Kivumba, Manyodo (Taita), Miseri (Chagga), Muura (Meru) Ocotea usambarensis Engl Bk, Rt T Paste applied on the swollen area or even to the swollen glands in the throat Throat Kokwaro (1993) and Muriuki (2011)
Loranthaceae Mondoiwet (Sabot) Phragmanthera ussuiensis (Oliv)
M.Gilbert
Bk S Decoction Not specified Okello et al. (2010)
Malvaceae Not reported Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Fr (pods) H Not reported Breast Gathura (2017)
  Mubuu (Mbere, Embu) Grewia villosa Willd Rt S Decoction taken Breast, prostate Kareru et al. (2007) and Onyancha et al. (2019)
  Lusatsa Sida cordifolia L L H Powder applied until it sticks and covers the lesions; used daily until recovery, usually with W. indica leaves Skin sarcoma Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Omukusa Sida rhombifolia L L H Powder infusion (75 ml) taken once daily for 2 weeks. Used with A. abyssinica and T. rhomboidei leaves. Maybe topically applied at 3-day intervals Uterine, skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the gums Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Likhambi/Imbululusia (male & female)/Oluyasi Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq L S Powder infusion (300 mL) with P. abyssinica (leaves & Rt), G. parviflora (leaves), O. gratissimmu and S. didymobotyra (leaves) taken twice daily for 2 weeks. Topically applied at 3-day interval Colorectal, uterine, squamous cell
carcinoma of the gums
Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Olundu lukhasi Waltheria indica L L H Powder applied until it sticks and covers the lesions; used daily until recovery, usually with S. cordifolia leaves Skin sarcoma, uterine, breast Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Meliaceae Kerbut (Markwet), Eshiruma Ekebergia capensis (Fresen. A. Rich) SB, L T Infusion (300 ml) taken thrice a day for a week. Decoction drunk Breast, skin, throat Mbuni et al. (2020) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mwarubaine Melia azedarach L L T Powder licked or taken orally (4.5 g in 150 ml of water) Colorectal, oesophageal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Munyama, Irojo, Musinzi Trichilia emetica Vahl SB, RB, L T Infusion (150 mL) taken once daily until recovery. Used with P. africana (SB & Rt), S. campanulata (leaves & SB), A. volkensii (leaves) and H. madagascariensis (SB)   Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Moraceae Simotwet nebo chego (Nandi) Ficus thonningii Blume Bk T Pressed on the site, leading to production of a thick black substance Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
  Mururi (Embu) Milicia excelsa NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Moringaceae Moringa (vera) Moringa oleifera Lam L, Sd H Seeds chewed; leaf decoction taken Prostate, breast, cervical Gathura (2017), Kamau et al. (2016) and Muriuki (2011)
Musaceae Kiongoro kia irigu, Marigu (Embu, Mbeere, Meru) Musa species NS S Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Myrsinaceae Kibabustanyiet (Nandi) Maesa lanceolata Forssk NS S Not reported Breast, colon, lung, liver Gathura (2017)
Myrtaceae Lamaiwo (Markweta), Musiema Syzygium guineense Wall Rt, Bk T Bark powder taken with hot milk or in water with honey as an infusion with 4.5 g thrice a day for 3 weeks. Powder residues after extraction is used fir bathing. Taken with powders of P. africana (Rt & SB), S. mauritianum (bark), M. tetraphylla (bark) and S. campanulata (bark & Rt) Skin Kigen et al. (2017) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Oleaceae Emtit (Nandi) Olea africana Bk T Pressed on the site, leading to production of a thick black substance Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
  Omutukuyu, Mutukuyu Olea hotch spp. Hochstetteri St S Infusion (150 mL) taken thrice daily until recovery. Prepared usually with Z. gilleti (SB), H. madagascariensis (SB), S. campanulata (SB & roots) and P. africana (SB) Skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Plumbaginaceae Not reported Plumbago zeylanica L NS H Not reported Breast, colon, liver, lung Gathura (2017)
Poaceae Lemon grass (English) Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf L, St H Freshly boiled stem (20 g) and leaf powder taken (300 mL) taken thrice a day for a week Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Pearl millet (English) Pennisetum glaucum Fr T Used with Tamarindus indica L. fruit Liver, prostate Gathura (2017)
  Wheat (English) Triticum aestivum L NS H Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Polygynaceae Rakaro Oxygonum sinuatum (Meisn.) Dammer L, Fr, St H Infusion (150 mL) prepared with B. pilosa (Rt, leaves and stem) taken thrice a day for 2 weeks for breast, skin & throat cancers Prostate, breast, skin, throat Gathura, (2017) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Primulaceae Mũgaita (Kikuyu) Myrsine africana L Bk, Fr S Decoction taken Breast, colon, lung, liver Gathura (2017) and Kamau et al. (2016)
  Kigeta, mugeta (Mbeere) Myrsine melanophloeos NS T Not reported Prostate Muriuki (2011)
  Not reported Rapanea melanphloes (L.) Mez NS T Not reported Breast, colon, lung, liver Gathura (2017)
Proteaceae Muyundi Macadamia tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson B T Infusion of powder (4.5 g) taken with hot milk or warm water with honey, thrice a day for 3 weeks. The residues from the extraction is used for bathing. Usually used with powder of S. guineense bark Skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Rhizophoraceae Muthaguta (Mbeere) Cassipourea malosana (Baker) Alston NS S Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
Rosaceae Mwiria (Embu), Muiri (Meru), Timonwo (Tugen), Mwilitsa Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman Rt, SB, Fr T Infusion drunk or decoction with soup drunk. Sometimes used with S. mauritianum bark Blood, breast, skin, colorectal, prostate Gathura (2017), Jeruto et al. (2015), Kareru et al. (2007), Mbuni et al. (2020), Muriuki (2011), Ochwang’i et al. (2014), Okello et al. (2010), Onyancha et al. (2019), Otieno and Analo (2012), Rufford (2020), Shiracko et al. (2016) and Welle (2020)
  Momonio (Markweta) Rubus apetalus Poir Fr T Chewed Not specified Kigen et al. (2017)
Rubiaceae Muchunkwa (Meru), Mucungwa (Embu, Mbeere) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck NS T Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  Magilion (Markweta), Kopulwo (Pokot), Eshiuna Gardenia volkensii K. Schum Fr, Bk S Infusion (300 ml) taken thrice daily for 3 months Skin, breast, uterine Mbuni et al. (2020) and Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Olngeriantus (Maa) Galium aparinoides Forssk WP H Decoction/infusion given to cattle Throat Kigen et al. (2019) and Kokwaro (1993)
  Ombura Pavetta abyssinica Fresen L, Rt S Infusion (150 ml) taken daily until recovery. Often used with R. vulgaris (Rt, leaves & fruits) and T. rhomboidei leaves Breast, skin, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mukomari, Shekoye Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich) SB T Infusion (30 g in 1 L of water) taken thrice daily until recovery. Applied topically on the wound Breast Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Vikudhuli Spermacoce princea (K. Schum.) Verdc L, AP S Infusion (150 ml) taken once per day. Used with leaves of S. mannii Breast, colorectal, skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014) and Onyancha et al. (2018)
Rutaceae Mukuria Hungu (Embu) Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) Dale SB T Decoction taken Breast, prostate Onyancha et al. (2018, 2019)
  Orongoriwe (Kuria), Osiro (Luo) Harrisonia abbysinica Olive Rt T Decoction taken Breast Onyancha et al. (2018) and Schmelzer et al. (2010)
  Ketemwo (Tugen), Ketemwet (Nandi) Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam Rt S Decoction taken. Sometimes used with roots of R. myriocoides, L. calostachys, and T. grandifolia. For throat cancer, Rt prepared with R. myriocoides and L. cornuta roots Throat Kigen et al. (2014) and Rufford (2020)
  Oloisuki (Maasai) Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl SB T Not reported Not specified Omosa et al. (2019)
  Shihumba, Shikuma Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G. Waterman SB T Powder infusion (150 ml) taken thrice daily for 3 months. Maybe also be applied topically. Prepared with P. africana (SB), H. madagascariensis (SB), O. capensis (SB) and S. campanulata (SB & Rt) Skin Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Not reported Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro St, Rt T Not reported Not specified Kaigongi et al. (2020)
  Shikhuma, Shigulutsu,
Shughoma
Zanthoxylum rubescens Hook. f L, SB, Rt T Infusion taken. Often prepared with S. campanulata (SB), A. erasifera stem bark, S. ellipticum (Bk & leaves) and M. pyrifolia leaves Breast, skin, colorectal, oesophageal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Salicaceae Chepkererlong Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb Rt S Decoction with roots of R. myricoides T. asiatica, and L. calostachys taken Not specified Kigen et al. (2014)
Santalaceae Mutero (Mbeere), Muchai (Meru) Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steudel NS T Not reported Prostate Muriuki (2011)
Sapotaceae Mukurumuru, Tsikhulumuru Synsepalum cerasiferum. Synonym: Afrosersalisia cerasifera (Welw.) Aubrev SB T Infusion taken for 1 month. Used with S. campanulata (SB), S. ellipticum (SB & Rt) and M. pyrifolia (leaves) Colorectal, oesophageal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Solanaceae Pilipili (Kiswahili) Capsicum frutescens L Fr cover H Powder made into capsules and infusion taken. Sometimes prepared with S. campanulata (Stem bark), M. pyrifolia leaves, J. procera (SB) and C. papaya (leaves & Rt) Breast, throat, squamous cell carcinoma Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Indalandalua Solanum aculeastrum Dunal Fr, Rt S Infusion (300 mL) with A. precatorius roots taken thrice daily for 1.5 months Skin, breast, cervical Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Mutongu, ndongu (Embu, Mbeere) Solanum incanum NS S Not reported Prostate Muriuki (2011)
  Lifuye, Liavuya Solanum mauritianum Scop Bk S Powder infusion (1500–300 mL) taken thrice daily for 10 days to 1.5 months, usually after meals for appetence. Used with P. africana (SB & Rt) Colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Murumbae (Kikuyu) Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal NS S Not reported Breast, prostate Gathura (2017)
Verbenaceae Munjugairia (Kikuyu), Ketbaiyat Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke Rt S Decoction taken. Sometimes used with roots of T. asiatica, L. calostachys, and T. grandifolia. For throat cancer, Rt prepared with T. asiatica and L. cornuta roots Prostate, throat Kamau et al. (2016) and Kigen et al. (2014)
  Muburu (Mbere), Mubiru (Embu) Vitex doniana Sweet L T Decoction taken Breast, prostate Kareru et al. (2007) and Onyancha et al. (2019)
Vitaceae Mukoyegoye Cyphostemma adenocaule (Steud.) Desc L, RB H Infusion (150 mL) taken once daily until recovery. Used with P. fischeri (leaves & SB), H. africana (leaves and Rt), leaves of S. princea and S. mannii Skin, breast, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
  Lithunzune, Maombola Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich) L, RB, SB H Leaf powder infusion or in porridge taken, thrice daily for 3 weeks. Powder in nylon paper bag is steamed in water and applied topically by rubbing on the wounds Skin, breast, colorectal Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Urticaceae Thabai (Kikuyu), Elaila Urtica massaica Mildbr L H Powder of leaves dried indoors applied topically on lesions (of mainly skin cancer) Skin, breast, uterine Ochwang’i et al. (2014)
Zygophyllaceae Chaparral Larrea tridentate NS H Not reported Not specified Muriuki (2011)
  1. AP, aerial parts; Bk, bark; Blb, bulb; Fr, fruit; L, leaf; Rt, root; RZ, rhizome; Sd, seed; St, stem; WP, whole plant; NS, not specified; H, herb; T, tree; S, shrub