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Table 3 Nutritional (dry weight basis) and physical properties of Moringa oleifera supplemented cookies

From: Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with Moringa oleifera leaf powder on physical, nutritional, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of cookies

  C0 C1 C2 C3
Protein (%) 10.56 ± 0.15c 12.20 ± 0.09b 12.49 ± 0.20b 15.30 ± 0.18a
Ash (%) 3.12 ± 0.18c 3.28 ± 0.08c 4.20 ± 0.05b 7.98 ± 0.06a
Fat (%) 14.21 ± 0.30c 14.92 ± 0.18b 15.10 ± 0.10b 15.50 ± 0.10a
Fibre (%) 2.50 ± 0.05b 2.42 ± 0.03b 2.45 ± 0.09b 2.67 ± 0.03a
Moisture (%) 7.75 ± 0.26a 7.92 ± 0.10a 7.93 ± 0.28a 7.42 ± 0.08b
CHO (%) 61.86 ± 0.36a 59.27 ± 0.31b 57.83 ± 0.20b 51.14 ± 0.16c
Energy value (KJ/100 g) 417.58 ± 1.95b 420.12 ± 0.70a 417.17 ± 0.96b 405.26 ± 1.02c
Thickness (cm) 0.90 ± 0.03a 0.86 ± 0.05a 0.75 ± 0.03b 0.75 ± 0.02b
Diameter (cm) 4.98 ± 0.10b 5.35 ± 0.24c 5.68 ± 0.19a 5.35 ± 0.06b
Spread ratio 5.50 ± 0.20c 6.21 ± 0.20b 7.55 ± 0.57a 7.08 ± 0.46a
  1. Values were presented as Mean ± SD
  2. Values with different letter across the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05)
  3. C0 = cookies made with 100% wheat flour; C1 = cookies made with 97.5% wheat plus 2.5% Moringa oleifera flour; C2 = cookies made with 95% wheat plus 5% Moringa oleifera flour; C3 = cookies made with 90% wheat plus 10% Moringa oleifera flour; CHO, carbohydrate (nitrogen free extract)