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Table 2 Bioactive, antioxidant and functional characteristics of wheat, Moringa oleifera and wheat-Moringa oleifera composite flours used in preparation of cookies

From: Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with Moringa oleifera leaf powder on physical, nutritional, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of cookies

  F100 F2.5 M F5M F10M M100
TPC 37.53 ± 4.08e 51.09 ± 2.53d 58.20 ± 2.13c 70.12 ± 1.64b 100.21 ± 1.61a
TFC 21.20 ± 1.04e 28.15 ± 0.56d 31.93 ± 0.48c 33.64 ± 0.91b 85.27 ± 3.34a
TAC 22.15 ± 1.18d 34.32 ± 0.48c 33.24 ± 2.92c 41.14 ± 1.71b 115.88 ± 12.32a
RP 12.63 ± 0.10e 16.95 ± 0.47d 18.97 ± 0.28c 28.81 ± 1.31b 55.04 ± 0.27a
DPPH 33.41 ± 2.81a 42.71 ± 1.71c 53.65 ± 1.74b 55.51 ± 3.20b 80.96 ± 2.86a
ABTS 36.43 ± 0.78e 41.19 ± 1.16d 44.49 ± 0.22c 47.88 ± 0.11b 50.98 ± 0.48a
BD 0.80 ± 0.01a 0.78 ± 0.02a 0.74 ± 0.01b 0.66 ± 0.03c 0.43 ± 0.02d
SWP 3.07 ± 0.21b 2.73 ± 0.08b 2.97 ± 0.15b 2.84 ± 0.11b 6.15 ± 0.57a
WAC 2.13 ± 0.06b 1.27 ± 0.10c 1.07 ± 0.11c 1.12 ± 0.10c 3.91 ± 0.50a
OAC 0.80 ± 0.11b 0.82 ± 0.09b 0.90 ± 0.09b 1.05 ± 0.14b 1.95 ± 0.19a
  1. Values with different letter across the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05)
  2. F100 = wheat flour, F2.5 M = 97.5% wheat flour + 2.5% Moringa oleifera flour; F5M = 95% wheat flour + 5% Moringa oleifera flour; F10M = 90% wheat flour + 10% Moringa oleifera flour; M100 = Moringa oleifera flour
  3. TPC, total phenolics content (mg GAE/100 g); TFC, total flavonoid (mg QUE/100 g); TAC, total antioxidant capacity (mg AAE/100 g); RP, reducing power (mg AAE/100 g); DPPH, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (% inhibition); ABTS, 2, 2-azobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate radical scavenging ability (% inhibition); BD, bulk density (g/cm3); SWP, swelling power (g/g); WAC, water absorption capacity (%); OAC, oil absorption (%)