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Table 5 Different types of free radicals and possible damages caused by them

From: Phytochemical competence and pharmacological perspectives of an endangered boon—Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm.: a comprehensive review

Types of free radicals Damages caused by the free radicals References
Superoxide anion Can damage mitochondria and DNA Beckman et al. (1994), Gupta (2015)
Hydroxyl radical Capable of damaging organic molecules present close to it, which include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and DNA
Singlet oxygen Causes oxidation of low-density lipid
Peroxyl radical Involved in food spoilage
Alkoxy radical Can cause DNA mutations and apoptosis
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) May cause risk for cancer development, hepatitis or other chronic inflammatory processes