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Table 4 Estimates of heterosis over better parent in 15 rice hybrids for all studied traits in both experiments of normal and drought stress conditions

From: Improvement of drought tolerance in rice using line X tester mating design and biochemical molecular markers

Entries Heading date (days) Plant height (cm) Number of filled grains/panicle 1000-grain weight (g) Grain yield/plant (g)
N S N S N S N S N S
L1 x T1 − 5.11** − 6.51** − 1.85 NS − 8.97** 30.01** 24.75** 22.84** 15.55** 79.16** 91.44**
L1 x T2 21.69** 33.27** 23.34** 35.81** 10.52** 6.75** 20.29** 20.30** − 44.50** − 54.09**
L1 x T3 17.0** 25.40** 18.07** 47.45** 36.27** 11.83** − 10.04 NS − 21.47** 7.71** 3.68 NS
L2 x T1 17.90** 22.91** 26.41** 44.28** − 19.09** − 21.08** − 25.84** − 52.06** − 5.28* − 32.62**
L2 x T2 15.96** 29.90** 22.79** 32.09** − 18.71** − 20.09** − 15.82* − 37.02** − 12.04** − 10.45**
L2 x T3 − 13.22** − 13.18** − 7.13** − 10.07** 73.20** 63.98** 27.92** 29.91** 72.84** 37.24**
L3 x T1 22.46** 34.51** 16.03** 27.01** − 9.31** − 10.62** 3.77 NS 5.44 NS 4.57 NS 13.59**
L3 x T2 12.51** 24.24** 25.31** 32.05** − 15.83** − 23.68** − 11.82 NS − 39.63** − 39.38** − 39.35**
L3 x T3 − 4.84** − 9.09** − 8.23** − 17.39** 105.49** 92.03** 34.90** 38.02** 42.30** 27.33**
L4 x T1 22.50** 36.47** 30.41** 40.82** 18.49** 16.14** − 25.28** − 57.91** − 36.74** − 55.48**
L4 x T2 3.87 * 6.85** 11.70** 14.37** − 22.80** − 23.12** 19.89** 20.0** − 50.80** − 48.01**
L4 x T3 − 12.46** − 16.58** − 13.18** − 19.83** 79.27** 69.53** 39.35** 48.28** 50.27** 74.75**
L5 x T1 − 9.90** − 13.77** − 7.58** − 10.51** 73.33** 75.44** 28.27** 36.41** 102.89** 112.38**
L5 x T2 11.73** 14.51** 17.57** 12.91** − 16.72** − 26.38** − 4.91 NS − 11.33* 13.93** 31.42**
L5 x T3 4.83** 15.57** 13.96** 43.61** − 19.02** − 21.21** − 2.63 NS − 20.14** − 30.73** − 52.62**
LSD 0.05 3.38 3.19 2.31 1.73 3.18 3.72 3.03 1.96 1.78 1.63
0.01 4.86 4.59 3.32 2.49 4.58 5.35 4.37 2.83 2.56 2.35
Crosses Maximum root length (cm) Number of roots/plant Root volume Root xylem vessel number Osmotic adjustment
N S N S N S N S
L1 x T1 95.39** 98.12** 125.18** 108.91** 145.45** 140.32** 61.32** 69.17** − 34.52*
L1 x T2 − 16.47** − 32.16** 25.81** 15.86** 102.84** 66.12** 9.20 NS 13.56 NS 122.07**
L1 x T3 24.76** 28.73** − 10.99** − 8.0** 28.48** 24.26** 39.66** 54.05** 110.86**
L2 x T1 − 14.36* − 32.78** − 9.82** − 19.68** 32.73** 35.21** 38.90** 52.03** 154.76**
L2 x T2 5.52 NS − 12.28* 82.54** 79.55** 35.07** 35.39** 1.55 NS 9.14 NS 192.20**
L2 x T3 77.22** 92.76** 160.78** 172.61** 110.41** 116.41** 135.28** 137.95** − 57.60**
L3 x T1 − 41.77** − 56.10** 26.78** 4.18** 68.12** 65.70** 31.89** 43.15 ** 125.0**
L3 x T2 − 40.77** − 65.74** − 35.41** − 53.25** 43.91** 44.48** 36.06** 31.93 ** 203.89**
L3 x T3 107.30** 110.21** 152.06** 117.87** 85.20** 73.92** 118.38** 126.85** − 54.34**
L4 x T1 − 16.97** − 21.04** − 17.27** − 26.88** 39.30** 29.86** − 20.41 * − 33.45 ** 146.42**
L4 x T2 11.48* − 19.41** 16.32** 7.27** 87.25** 89.25** − 24.56** − 31.17 ** 137.66**
L4 x T3 37.37** 53.44** 120.04** 148.98** 114.71** 122.88** 169.68** 172.69** − 68.47**
L5 x T1 116.97** 115.83** 247.05** 240.95** 133.15** 134.83** 92.83** 109.61** − 27.38*
L5 x T2 − 8.34 NS − 30.07** − 3.66** − 9.91** 20.29** 19.01** 13.87 NS 6.02 NS 140.25**
L5 x T3 − 49.06** − 62.42** − 40.28** − 53.52** 49.21** 38.29** 8.64 NS − 17.53 NS 118.47**
LSD 0.05 3.67 3.11 1.42 1.46 1.54 1.59 2.29 2.42 0.23
0.01 5.29 4.47 2.05 2.01 2.22 2.29 3.30 3.48 0.34