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Table 2 Reference planes and line

From: Evaluation of maxillary first molar rotation during direct miniscrew-supported maxillary canine retraction: a before-and-after study

Plane (abbreviation) Definition
1. Midsagittal plane (MSP) A plane passing through the ANS, PNS and IF
2. Horizontal plane (HP) A plane passing through the ANS and the PNS. It is perpendicular to MSP
3. Frontal plane (FP): coronal A plane passing through the IF. It is perpendicular to MSP and HP
4. Upper first molar horizontal axis A line connecting the mesiobuccal and distobuccal first molar cusp tips