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Table 1 Landmarks

From: Evaluation of maxillary first molar rotation during direct miniscrew-supported maxillary canine retraction: a before-and-after study

Landmark (abbreviation) Definition
1. Anterior nasal spine (ANS) Most anterior point on the tip of the anterior nasal spine
2. Posterior nasal spine (PNS) Most posterior point on the hard palate at the tip of the posterior nasal spine
3. Incisive foramen (IF) Most posterior point at the opening of the incisive foramen at the midline from the occlusal view
4. Upper first molar mesiobuccal cusp tip The most occlusal point on the mesiobuccal cusp tip of the upper first molar
5. Upper first molar distobuccal cusp tip The most occlusal point on the distobuccal cusp tip of the upper first molar