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Table 7 Selected demographic characteristics of khat users, the related physiological symptoms of cancers and the factors actuating consumption of khat

From: A review of the health implications of heavy metals and pesticide residues on khat users

Type of study Country of study Age Descriptive statistics related to cancer cases Physiological abnormalities associated with cancer development Factors that actuate the consumption of Khat among the users References
Recorded number of participants Khat consumers in terms of percentages (%) of the respective populations
Administered interviews Ethiopia  < 18 years NP* NP* Mouth sores Peer pressure, Religious beliefs, and Social influences Sinba (2017)
Cross-sectional hospital study Yemen 20–65 years 82 75.20% White lesions on oral mucosa Social influences Schmidt‐Westhausen et al. (2014)
Population survey Israel  < 30 years 39 83% White lesions on skin sections Global spread of Khat usage, Smoking Gorsky et al. (2004)
Pilot case–control study Ethiopia  < 18 years 73 CC* 35.40% CC* Traditions, culture and religious beliefs Leon et al. (2017)
Cross-sectional study Ethiopia 31.86 years (Mean Age) NP* NP* Lesions Leisure activities, family history of tobacco use peer pressure Molla et al. (2017)
Case–control study Yemen 56.95 years (Mean Age) NP* NP* Lesions, lymph node, mucosal burns Smoking and experimental Khat chewing Nasher et al. (2014)
Cross-sectional population based study Ethiopia 15–69 years NP* NP* NP* Khat chewing that accompany heavy alcohol consumption Defar et al. (2017)
Descriptive study Kenya Adults 51 75 *NP Mouth sores, dental carries, alcohol consumption Njuguna et al. (2013)
  1. *NP not provided, CC cancer cases