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Table 5 Effect of biofertilizer and herbicides on fennel oil composition

From: Influence of herbicides under biofertilizer application on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) yield and quality with special reference to herbicide residues

Rates of biofertilizer* (v:v:v) Herbicide treatments** Major essential oil constituents (%)
α-pinene Myrcene Limonene 1,8 Cineole Methyl chavicol Anethole
F1 H1 0.11 1.31 14.59 4.62 77.59 0.44
H2 1.43 0.92 15.93 4.55 76.15 0.64
H3 0.71 0.83 13.34 2.62 79.97 1.33
H4 0.95 0.96 16.46 6.53 72.54 0.70
H5 2.05 1.11 15.38 6.77 69.79 1.71
F2 H1 0.96 0.98 16.59 6.36 72.29 0.70
H2 2.02 1.21 15.14 6.69 67.39 2.16
H3 1.45 1.15 16.87 2.64 75.60 0.29
H4 1.43 0.29 17.42 2.72 76.58 0.39
H5 1.41 1.05 9.32 4.5 81.85 0.59
F3 H1 1.98 0.74 14.15 2.42 78.86 0.24
H2 1.20 0.88 12.61 2.72 81.58 0.31
H3 2..22 0.79 8.43 4.86 78.37 0.33
H4 1.15 0.99 20.80 2.07 74.48 0.50
H5 2.07 0.85 15.50 6.68 65.14 1.93
  1. *The three biofertilizer rates F1: 1:1:1, F2: 2:1:1 and F3: 1:1:2 (v/v/v) from the highly efficient bacterial strains of; atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphor dissolving and potassium solubilizing, respectively. **Herbicides treatments; (H1) untreated check without weed removal by hand as control treatment, (H2) untreated check with weed removal, (H3) pendimethalin at reduced rate;812 g a.i. ha−1, as pre-emergence (after sowing and before irrigation), (H4) fluazifop-p butyl at the recommended rate; 450 g a.i. ha−1 as post-emergence (30 days after sowing) and (H5) a combination of sequential application of pendimthalin at the half rate + fluazifop butyl at the recommended rate