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Table 3 The effects of nanoparticles on growth parameters of rice plants exposed to nanoparticles and sown in ferruginous (F) and non-ferruginous (N) soils at 12 weeks after sowing (8 weeks after nano-intervention)

From: Growth and yield performances of rice (Oryza sativa var. nerica) after exposure to biosynthesized nanoparticles

Treatment Plant height (cm) Leave length (cm) No. of leaves Leaf width (cm)
F N p value F N p value F N p value F N p value
AZ5% 33.65 30.94 0.318 38.96 42.2 0.033 21 17 0.313 1.4 1.4 0.933
CA5% 37.92 34.93 0.137 23.98 55.7  < 0.001 8 14  < 0.001 0.8 1.5  < 0.001
ZO5% 71.86 31.94  < 0.001 35.96 62.8  < 0.001 15 11 0.138 1.1 1.2 0.632
VA5% 23.95 40.92 0.025 13.99 53  < 0.001 8 25  < 0.001 0.6 1.1 0.125
MO5% 55.89 50.9 0.552 31.97 72.5  < 0.001 10 26  < 0.001 1.2 0.7 0.092
AZ15% 38.92 44.91  < 0.001 42.96 55.9 0.031 9 12 0.522 1.3 1.1 0.144
CA15% 37.92 47.21  < 0.001 37.96 63.5  < 0.001 13 22  < 0.001 0.7 1.3  < 0.001
ZO15% 69.86 49.9  < 0.001 42.96 55 0.003 21 19 0.723 1.3 1.4 0.042
VA15% 23.95 53.89  < 0.001 20.98 53.5  < 0.001 7 25  < 0.001 0.5 0.6 0.152
MO15% 55.89 37.92  < 0.001 28.97 68.8  < 0.001 11 11 0.912 1.1 0.7 0.318
AZ30% 47.9 58.88 0.053 35.96 75  < 0.001 14 11  < 0.001 1.3 1.2 0.627
CA30% 19.96 47.6 0.032 12.99 55.5  < 0.001 6 17  < 0.001 0.4 0.6 0.061
ZO30% 41.92 46.91  < 0.001 34.97 53.8  < 0.001 10 24  < 0.001 1.1 1.5 0.139
VA30% 48.9 47.9 0.792 16.98 65  < 0.001 9 16  < 0.001 0.5 1.2  < 0.001
MO30% 46.41 51.4 0.418 30.97 57.5  < 0.001 13 12 0.772 1.1 1.2 0.639
Control 48.9 39.92  < 0.001 28.13 49.8  < 0.001 10 8 0.742 1.3 1.4 0.735
  1. CA Carica papaya, VA Vernonia amygdalina, MO Moringa oleiofera, AZ Azadiracta indica ZO Hibiscus sabdariffa