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Table 1 Data-collection table demonstrated the anti-viral potential of metallic NPs for viral inhibition and detection

From: A proposed insight into the anti-viral potential of metallic nanoparticles against novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)

Chemical composition and size (nm) of NPs Characterization method Virus Application and function References
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(15 nm)
Data not shown Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Gold (Au) NP probes (GNP) for ultrasensitive detection of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) Yin et al. (2017)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(30 nm) and Fe3O4 NPs (15–20 nm)
SEM,TEM Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen Immunosensor for surface antigen detection based on Hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme-signal amplification Alizadeh et al. (2017)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(15 ± 4 nm)
Data not shown Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen DNA/AuNPs sensor: a sandwich assay and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for ultrasensitive detection of viral DNA Zengin et al. (2017)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(2 nm and 14 nm)
TEM Influenza virus A (H1N1) Multivalent
Sialic-Acid-Functionalized AuNPs: anti-viral activity
Papp et al. (2010)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(35 nm)
Filter-based multimode microplate reader, TEM Influenza virus A (H1N1) A modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with nanomaterials: anti-viral activity Ahmed et al. (2016)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(2–50 nm)
SEM Hepatitis C virus For direct detection of unamplified viral RNA in clinical specimens Shawky et al. (2010)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(19 nm)
TEM, DLS Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Detection method of MERS-CoV with a potential detection limit of 1 pmol/μL Kim et al. (2019)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(40 and 100 nm)
DLS and TEM Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) AuNPs ‐adjuvanted S protein: to induce immune response (IgG) Sekimukai et al. (2019)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(5–20 nm)
XRD, SEM, AFM Adenoviruses AuNPs encapsulated in a SiO2 shell: Anti-viral activity Lysenko et al. (2018)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(12 nm)
TEM, UV–Vis spectrophotometry, DLS Influenza A virus AuNPs—matrix 2 protein (M2e) conjugate coformulated with CpG: to induce immune response Tao et al. (2014)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(18 nm)
CLSM Influenza virus AuNPs-based vaccination to enhance adaptive immunity Wang et al. (2018)
Gold NPs (AuNPs) UV–Vis spectroscopy, TEM Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) Peptide nucleic acids (PNA)-AuNPs
colorimetric detection assay of viral RNA
Askaravi et al. (2017)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(13 nm)
TEM, DLS Influenza A virus A colorimetric immunosensor based on AuNPs modified with monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin antibody (mAb) Liu et al. (2015)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(10, 20, and 40 nm)
SEM Influenza A virus Immuno-AuNPs conjugates: for detection Gopinath et al. (2013)
Gold NPs (AuNPs)
(12.92 nm)
UV–Vis spectroscopy, DLS Dengue virus Cationic AuNPs–siRNA complexes: in vitro anti-viral activity Paul et al. (2014)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(30–50 nm)
Data not shown Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Therapeutic (anti-viral) action at an early stage and at post-entry stages Lara et al. (2010)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(13, 33 and 46 nm)
TEM, SEM Herpesviruses (HSV-2) infectivity Tnnic acid modified AgNPs: Size-related in vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity Orłowski et al. (2018)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(33 nm)
TEM Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 Tannic Acid/ AgNPs-Based Mucoadhesive Hydrogel: anti-viral activity Szymańska et al. (2018)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(5- 25 nm)
High-resolution transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscopes Non-Enveloped (feline coronavirus (FCoV)) and Enveloped (bursal disease virus (IBDV)) Viruses Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites: anti-viral activity Chen et al. (2016)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(10 nm)
TEM Influenza virus A (H1N1) Anti-viral activity Xiang et al. (2011)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm)
SEM and TEM Influenza virus A (H1N1) AgNPs/chitosan (Ch) composites: anti-viral activity Mori et al. (2013)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(7–20 nm)
UV–Vis spectrophotometry, Nanoparticle tracking and analysis, TEM Herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 Smaller-sized AgNPs: anti-viral activity through decreasing viral replication Gaikwad et al. (2013)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(4–9 nm)
UV–Vis spectrometry, TEM, EDX- FE-SEM Poliovirus and non-enveloped viruses Electrochemical –synthesized AgNPs: anti-viral activity Huy et al. (2017)
Silver NPs (AgNPs)
(11.4 nm)
TEM Adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) In vitro anti-viral activity Chen et al. (2013)
Silica NPs
(200 nm)
TEM, SEM Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs): to act as a protein delivery system or vaccine carriers Guo et al. (2012)
Silica NPs
(50–70 nm)
FESEM, FTIR, TGA Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Silica NPs-based Immunoassay (SNIA): for detection using time resolved fluorescence- enhanced sensitivity Chunduri et al. (2017)
Silica NPs
(150–200 nm)
DLS, TEM Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) mimetic functionalised solid and mesoporous SiNPs (MSNs and SSNs): acting as viral binding/entry inhibitors Lee et al. (2016)
Iron oxide NPs (IONPs)
(10–15 nm)
HR-TEM, DLS-zeta, XRD, FTIR Pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1/Eastern India/66/PR8-H1N1 Inhibition of virus growth Kumar et al. (2019)
Iron oxide magnetic NPs (MNPs)
(90 ± 30 nm)
TEM, XRD Influenza A virus An assay combining efficient magnetic separation and MALDI-TOF MS: For detection Chou et al. (2011)
Iron oxide NPs (IONPs)
(103 ± 2 nm)
Malvern’s zetasizer-ZS90 Zika Virus Magnetic relaxation-sensitive nanoparticles (MRNPs): Magnetic Nanosensors for detection Shelby et al. (2017)
Zinc oxide NPs
(20–50 nm)
ICP-MS, XRD, TEM, FE-SEM Influenza virus A (H1N1) Anti-viral activity Ghaffari et al. (2019)
Zinc oxide (ZnO)-nanostructures
(diamters:200 nm to 1 µm;
arm lengths:5 µm to 30 µm)
SEM Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) ZnO tetrapod micro-nanostructures synthesized by flame transport approach: anti-viral activity Antoine et al. (2012)
Graphene oxide
(127.7 nm)
UV–vis spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Curcumin functionalized GO: anti-viral activity Yang et al. (2017)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
(4–10 nm)
EM Influenza Virus Anti-viral activity Mazurkova et al. (2010)
Ceria NPs
(6 nm)
TEM Influenza virus Nano-ceria aqueous sol containing no stabilizer: to enhance immune response Zholobak et al. (2016)
Selenium NPs
Se@ZNV: 82 nm
TEM, EDX, FTIR, XPS Influenza virus A (H1N1) Zanamivir modified SeNPs (Se@ZNV): anti-viral activity Lin et al. (2017)