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Table 2 Mean ± SD of total proteins, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, nitric oxide, glutathione reduced and haptoglobin in dairy cows during winter/heat stress with and without retained fetal membranes

From: The effect of Seasonal heat stress on oxidants–antioxidants biomarkers, trace minerals and acute-phase response of peri-parturient Holstein Friesian cows supplemented with adequate minerals and vitamins with and without retained fetal membranes

Months Cold Hot P value
Parameters Normal Retained Normal Retained
Total proteins g/dl) 5.65 ± .07b 5.46 ± .18b 5.17 ± .07a 5.52 ± .11b 0.0001
Albumin (g/dl) 4.69 ± .06b 4.68 ± .12b 4.36 ± .088a 4.79 ± .11b 0.0001
Globulin (g/dl) 1.39 ± .06 1.17 ± .14 1.35 ± .08 1.18 ± .13 0.041
Albumin/globulin 3.70 ± .20a 4.06 ± .45ab 4.18 ± .37ab 4.86 ± .62b 0.007
NO (µmol/l) 26.83 ± 1.81a 33.49 ± 5.80b 24.63 ± 1.60a 35.15 ± 2.46b 0.002
GSH(g/dl) 32.11 ± 2.11b 19.48 ± 7.12a 24.75 ± 1.56a 22.60 ± 2.92a 0.008
Haptoglobin mg/dl) 14.86 ± 1.85 13.46 ± 4.98 14.16 ± 1.21 18.38 ± 1.78 NS
  1. Means with different superscripts (a, b, c) are significant at P < 0.05, NS (non-significant), NO (nitric oxide), GSH (glutathione reduced)