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Table 1 Summary of the detection of MMTV-like virus and positivity rate in normal and breast cancer samples relative to the different selected articles

From: Does mouse mammary tumor-like virus cause human breast cancer? Applying Bradford Hill criteria postulates

Studied Population

Technique used for the viral genome detection

Target gene

No. of normal samples screened

No. of normal samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS

Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in normal samples

No. of adjacent/benign samples screened

No. of adjacent/benign samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS

Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in adjacent/benign samples

No. of breast cancer samples screened

No. of breast cancer samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS

Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in breast cancer samples

References

Australia

PCR

Env

0

0

0

25

6

24

25

9

36

Nartey et al. (2017)

PCR

Env

40

13

32

0

0

0

50

39

78

Glenn et al. (2012)

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

42

0

0

Park et al. (2011)

PCR, Immunohistochemistry

Env, gp52

29

0

0

0

0

0

74

33

45

Lawson et al. (2010)

PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

51

28

56

Mok et al. (2008)

Semi-nested PCR

Env

111

2

1.8

25

5

20

288

90

31.2

Ford et al. (2004)

Semi-nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

128

50

39.06

Faedo et al. (2004)

PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

44

20

45.45

Lawson et al. (2004)

PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

59

22

37.3

Lawson et al. (2006)

Pakistan

PCR

LTR

0

0

0

0

0

0

55

19

34.5

Naushad et al. (2017a)

PCR

LTR, Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

250

29

11.6

Naushad et al. (2017b)

PCR

LTR, Env

6

0

0

0

0

0

80

37

46.25

Naushad et al. (2014)

Iran

Nested PCR

Env

65

0

0

0

0

0

65

0

0

Oskouee et al. (2014)

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

59

3

5

59

19

32.2

Shariatpanahi et al. (2017)

Real-time PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

40

0

0

Tabriz et al. (2013)

Nested PCR

Env

300

0

0

0

0

0

50

0

0

Motamedifar et al. (2012)

Real-time PCR

Env

100

0

0

0

0

0

100

12

12

Reza et al. (2015)

Morocco

PCR

Env

0

0

0

18

6

33.3

42

24

57.1

Slaoui et al. (2014)

Austria

PCR, Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

50

0

0

Witt et al. (2003)

Egypt

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

50

2

4

100

36

36

Hafez et al. (2013)

Vietnam

PCR

Env

60

0

0

0

0

0

120

1

0.83

Ford et al. (2003)

Argentina

PCR

Env

74

1

1.35

74

0

0

74

23

31

Melana et al. (2002)

Sweden

RT-PCR

Env

0

0

0

11

0

0

35

0

0

Bindra et al. (2007)

Saudi Arabia

PCR

Env

51

0

0

93

9

9.7

101

6

5.9

Al Dossary et al. (2018)

Tunisia

Semi-nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

122

17

3.9

Hachana et al. (2008)

Antigen detection

gp52

0

0

0

17

0

0

33

23

70

Levine et al. (1984)

PCR

Env

140

2

1.4

0

0

0

38

28

73.7

Pogo et al. (2010)

USA

Nested PCR

Env

35

0

0

0

0

0

73

27

36.9

Etkind et al. (2000)

PCR

Env

140

2

1.4

0

0

0

709

323

45.5

Pogo et al. (2010)

PCR

Env

107

2

1.8

29

2

6.9

314

121

38.5

Wang et al. (1995)

Molecular hybridization

0

0

0

0

0

0

38

30

78.9

Axel et al. (1972)

Mexico

PCR

Env

0

0

0

65

0

0

86

0

0

Morales-Sanchez et al. (2013)

PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

119

5

4.2

Zapata-Benavides et al. (2007)

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

458

72

16

458

57

12.4

Cedro-Tanda et al. (2014)

Myanmar

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

58

1

1.7

San et al. (2017)

Italy

Fluorescence-nested PCR, Immunohistochemistry

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

105

 

34.5

Naccarato et al. (2019)

Fluorescence-nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

45

15

33

Zammarchi et al. (2006)

Fluorescence-nested PCR, Real-time PCR, In situ hybridization

Env

20

0

0

26

5

19.2

138

47

68.1

Mazzanti et al. (2011)

PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

122

45

36.8

Pogo et al. (1999)

China

Nested PCR

Env

0

0

0

0

0

0

241

44

18.25

Luo et al. (2006)

  1. PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR real-time PCR, Env envelope protein, Ltr long terminal repeats