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Table 1 Summary of the detection of MMTV-like virus and positivity rate in normal and breast cancer samples relative to the different selected articles

From: Does mouse mammary tumor-like virus cause human breast cancer? Applying Bradford Hill criteria postulates

Studied Population Technique used for the viral genome detection Target gene No. of normal samples screened No. of normal samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in normal samples No. of adjacent/benign samples screened No. of adjacent/benign samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in adjacent/benign samples No. of breast cancer samples screened No. of breast cancer samples positive for MMTV-LIKE VIRUS Percentage positivity of MMTV-LIKE VIRUS in breast cancer samples References
Australia PCR Env 0 0 0 25 6 24 25 9 36 Nartey et al. (2017)
PCR Env 40 13 32 0 0 0 50 39 78 Glenn et al. (2012)
Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 0 Park et al. (2011)
PCR, Immunohistochemistry Env, gp52 29 0 0 0 0 0 74 33 45 Lawson et al. (2010)
PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 28 56 Mok et al. (2008)
Semi-nested PCR Env 111 2 1.8 25 5 20 288 90 31.2 Ford et al. (2004)
Semi-nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 128 50 39.06 Faedo et al. (2004)
PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 20 45.45 Lawson et al. (2004)
PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 22 37.3 Lawson et al. (2006)
Pakistan PCR LTR 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 19 34.5 Naushad et al. (2017a)
PCR LTR, Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 29 11.6 Naushad et al. (2017b)
PCR LTR, Env 6 0 0 0 0 0 80 37 46.25 Naushad et al. (2014)
Iran Nested PCR Env 65 0 0 0 0 0 65 0 0 Oskouee et al. (2014)
Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 59 3 5 59 19 32.2 Shariatpanahi et al. (2017)
Real-time PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 Tabriz et al. (2013)
Nested PCR Env 300 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 Motamedifar et al. (2012)
Real-time PCR Env 100 0 0 0 0 0 100 12 12 Reza et al. (2015)
Morocco PCR Env 0 0 0 18 6 33.3 42 24 57.1 Slaoui et al. (2014)
Austria PCR, Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 Witt et al. (2003)
Egypt Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 50 2 4 100 36 36 Hafez et al. (2013)
Vietnam PCR Env 60 0 0 0 0 0 120 1 0.83 Ford et al. (2003)
Argentina PCR Env 74 1 1.35 74 0 0 74 23 31 Melana et al. (2002)
Sweden RT-PCR Env 0 0 0 11 0 0 35 0 0 Bindra et al. (2007)
Saudi Arabia PCR Env 51 0 0 93 9 9.7 101 6 5.9 Al Dossary et al. (2018)
Tunisia Semi-nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 122 17 3.9 Hachana et al. (2008)
Antigen detection gp52 0 0 0 17 0 0 33 23 70 Levine et al. (1984)
PCR Env 140 2 1.4 0 0 0 38 28 73.7 Pogo et al. (2010)
USA Nested PCR Env 35 0 0 0 0 0 73 27 36.9 Etkind et al. (2000)
PCR Env 140 2 1.4 0 0 0 709 323 45.5 Pogo et al. (2010)
PCR Env 107 2 1.8 29 2 6.9 314 121 38.5 Wang et al. (1995)
Molecular hybridization 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 30 78.9 Axel et al. (1972)
Mexico PCR Env 0 0 0 65 0 0 86 0 0 Morales-Sanchez et al. (2013)
PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 5 4.2 Zapata-Benavides et al. (2007)
Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 458 72 16 458 57 12.4 Cedro-Tanda et al. (2014)
Myanmar Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 58 1 1.7 San et al. (2017)
Italy Fluorescence-nested PCR, Immunohistochemistry Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 105   34.5 Naccarato et al. (2019)
Fluorescence-nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 15 33 Zammarchi et al. (2006)
Fluorescence-nested PCR, Real-time PCR, In situ hybridization Env 20 0 0 26 5 19.2 138 47 68.1 Mazzanti et al. (2011)
PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 122 45 36.8 Pogo et al. (1999)
China Nested PCR Env 0 0 0 0 0 0 241 44 18.25 Luo et al. (2006)
  1. PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR real-time PCR, Env envelope protein, Ltr long terminal repeats