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Table 2 Effect of emamectin benzoate (EMB) sublethal concentrations on various biological characteristics of Spodoptera littoralis

From: Sublethal effects of emamectin benzoate on life table parameters of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

Stages Untreated LC5 LC15 df1 df2 F P
n Mean ± SE n Mean ± SE n Mean ± SE
Larvae period 86 15.41 ± 0.07a 80 16.98 ± 0.08b 70 16.86 ± 0.07b 2 233 280.16 0.00
Pre-pupae weight 84 344.62 ± 6.43a 76 305.13 ± 6.14b 70 294.85 ± 6.28b 2 227 915.89 0.00
Pupae weight 84 324.17 ± 6.46a 74 273.08 ± 6.29b 60 266.40 ± 4.15b 2 215 4365.92 0.00
Pupae period 84 10.16 ± 0.13a 74 9.24 ± 0.11b 60 9.23 ± 0.09b 2 215 43.42 0.00
Mean longevity of males (days) 36 37.79 ± 0.18a 38 39.05 ± 0.36b 32 38.88 ± 0.36c 2 103 9.03 0.00
Mean longevity of females (days) 48 38.5 ± 0.25a 36 40.11 ± 0.35b 28 39.99 ± 0.33b 2 109 20.70 0.00
(APOP) 48 1.67 ± 0.14a 36 2.22 ± 0.15b 28 3.07 ± 0.4c 2 109 20.78 0.00
(TPOP) 48 30.04 ± 0.14a 36 31.44 ± 0.26b 28 32.21 ± 0.37b 2 109 45.12 0.00
Ovi-days 48 5.17 ± 0.37 a 36 4.67 ± 0.28 a 28 3.57 ± 0.23 b 2 109 64.31 0.00
  1. APOP adult preovipositional period, TPOP total preovipositional period (from egg to first oviposition)
  2. Means in the same row followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05)
  3. df1, degree of freedom within groups
  4. df2, degree of freedom within groups