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Table 2 Relative levels of inhibition/activation of poly-dHbS-M by fractionated leaf extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa

From: Polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin in the presence of fractionated leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa

[Extract fraction] Relative inhibition/activation of polymerization (%)
30 s 60 s 90 s 120 s 150 s 180 s
A. occidentale petroleum ether
40 mg% 9.76 ± 1.23 4.83 ± 0.73 5.76 ± 1.10 0.25 ± 0.05 0.31 ± 0.02 1.06 ± 0.02
60 mg% 1.74 ± 0.02 7.10 ± 1.11 14.57 ± 1.12 16.49 ± 1.22 18.39 ± 1.11 18.65 ± 1.10
80 mg% 0.38 ± 0.01 11.68 ± 0.89 10.43 ± 1.08 0.66 ± 0.01 1.43 ± 0.02 2.60 ± 0.88
A. occidentale n-hexane
40 mg% 3.70 ± 0.04 18.15 ± 1.21 2.96 ± 0.03 11.48 ± 1.10 28.52 ± 2.80 41.48 ± 3.87
60 mg% 7.77 ± 1.56 25.19 ± 2.56 7.04 ± 1.16 0.37 ± 0.01 15.19 ± 1.80 32.59 ± 3.67
80 mg% 4.81 ± 1.65 18.52 ± 2.01 27.41 ± 2.98 18.51 ± 2.07 3.33 ± 0.98 9.26 ± 1.67
A. occidentale chloroform
40 mg% 87.80 ± 4.90 59.83 ± 5.91 38.69 ± 2.10 31.25 ± 2.20 35.84±3.00 38.69 ± 4.01
60 mg% 31.25 ± 3.67 29.17 ± 3.23 17.55 ± 1.10 20.24 ± 1.90 31.67 ± 3.00 29.76 ± 2.67
80 mg% 16.97 ± 2.88 24.41 ± 3.11 46.43 ± 3.56 46.42 ± 2.56 32.31 ± 2.54 27.38 ± 2.56
A. occidentale ethylacetate
40 mg% 51.11 ± 4.98 90.00 ± 5.78 94.07 ± 6.98 81.85 ± 5.34 82.96 ± 4.87 79.26 ± 4.98
60 mg% 38.51 ± 2.80 66.67±3.48 67.04 ± ± 3.95 52.96 ± 3.01 48.88 ± 3.89 43.71 ± 2.69
80 mg% 13.33 ± 1.80 22.22 ± 2.00 5.18 ± 1.01 17.41 ± 1.90 31.85 ± 2.50 26.67 ± 2.11
A. occidentale residual aqueous
40 mg% 36.64 ± 3.00 101.13 ± 7.9 160.61 ± 8.9 129.53 ± 7.1 87.03 ± 4.10 29.93 ± 2.78
60 mg% 20.59 ± 2.00 119.63 ± 9.7 103.75 ± 7.9 98.44 ± 5.40 363.18 ± 11.8 612.46 ± 15.9
80 mg% 9.28 ± 1.76 105.26 ± 8.6 120.11 ± 8.9 43.34 ± 2.52 210.72 ± 10.7 563.95 ± 13.8
P. guajava petroleum ether
40 mg% 72.62 ± 3.50 73.22 ± 2.89 56.25 ± 4.97 67.86 ± 3.55 84.06 ± 4.01 103.27 ± 7.4
60 mg% 63.10 ± 4.10 70.54 ± 4.92 51.48 ± 3.87 58.34 ± 2.98 67.69 ± 4.91 75.30 ± 3.77
80 mg% 70.83 ± 3.80 75.16 ± 3.78 49.99 ± 2.99 40.48 ± 3.32 42.39 ± 4.11 58.93 ± 4.54
P. guajava n-hexane
40 mg% 38.68 ± 2.98 38.31 ± 3.00 34.71 ± 2.09 28.33 ± 2.98 27.15 ± 2.67 27.54 ± 2.67
60 mg% 16.00 ± 1.76 23.90 ± 1.98 25.54 ± 1.77 25.39 ± 2.00 25.79 ± 2.08 34.53 ± 2.33
80 mg% 22.60 ± 2.76 28.56 ± 2.78 34.23 ± 3.03 43.94 ± 3.66 49.57 ± 3.89 51.73 ± 4.03
P. guajava chloroform
40 mg% 1.10 ± 0.09 2.19 ± 0.86 5.37 ± 0.98 11.51 ± 1.09 23.72 ± 2.04 29.10 ± 2.54
60 mg% 20.56 ± 2.40 7.64 ± 0.99 22.00 ± 2.03 25.87 ± 1.78 24.23 ± 2/12 19.59 ± 2.03
80 mg% 14.81 ± 1.10 5.08 ± 0.89 10.42 ± 1.21 15.85 ± 1.78 23.13 ± 2.21 30.84 ± 2.78
P. guajava ethylacetate
40 mg% 4.31 ± 0.09 14.75 ± 1.02 31.03 ± 2.45 45.10 ± 3.11 55.01 ± 3.08 67.73 ± 3.98
60 mg% 17.53 ± 1.60 11.84 ± 1.22 5.60 ± 0.98 8.59 ± 1.12 7.76 ± 1.11 5.68 ± 0.93
80 mg% 9.93 ± 1.02 15.93 ± 1.65 31.07 ± 2.34 31.06 ± 2.01 31.32 ± 2.33 37.00 ± 3.09
P. guajava residual aqueous
40 mg% 22.01 ± 1.98 16.46 ± 1.56 17.29 ± 1.45 17.57 ± 1.87 33.18 ± 2.45 69.53 ± 5.34
60 mg% 18.38 ± 1.78 3.86 ± 1.32 3.54 ± 0.89 0.83 ± 0.08 57.40 ± 2.78 100.73 ± 8.8
80 mg% 8.08 ± 0.78 14.82 ± 1.78 12.84 ± 1.04 32.38 ± 2.02 100.53 ± 8.5 143.88 ± 9.8
T. catappa petroleum ether
40 mg% 12.63 ± 1.40 44.78 ± 3.59 40.91 ± 4.0 22.06 ± 2.11 6.39 ± 1.23 2.02 ± 0.21
60 mg% 27.61±2.20 57.07 ± ± 4.78 55.22 ± 5.2 24.25 ± 2.19 11.62 ± 1.05 39.90 ± 2.56
80 mg% 9.43 ± 0.56 45.96 ± 4.98 26.43 ± 3.1 2.18 ± 0.09 28.46 ± 1.45 49.50 ± 3.67
T. catappa n-hexane
40 mg% 11.07 ± 1.9 5.81 ± 1.09 9.91 ± 1.08 8.88 ± 0.95 9.21 ± 0.17 9.21 ± 0.95
60 mg% 0.61 ± 0.03 8.23 ± 0.85 5.41 ± 0.09 11.00 ± 0.87 18.31 ± 2.01 6.50 ± 0.98
80 mg% 9.46 ± 0.97 19.16 ± 1.56 6.21 ± 1.54 5.99 ± 1.04 15.06 ± 1.67 16.81 ± 2.45
T. catappa chloroform
40 mg% 9.46 ± 1.06 0.96 ± 0.02 1.35 ± 0.08 1.46 ± 0.09 9.87 ± 0.89 8.33 ± 1.02
60 mg% 7.29 ± 0.09 11.13±1.78 3.18 ± 0.45 1.46 ± 0.06 0.09 ± 0.001 1.89 ± 0.08
80 mg% 0.19 ± 0.09 16.02 ± 1.98 6.64 ± 1.07 8.32 ± 1.44 1.57 ± 0.07 6.44 ± 0.98
T. catappa ethylacetate
40 mg% 2.53 ± 0.88 8.91 ± 1.05 2.05 ± 0.18 13.23 ± 2.01 12.21 ± 1.05 19.55 ± 2.01
60 mg% 18.76 ± 1.78 10.34 ± 0.98 13.85 ± 0.88 2.74 ± 0.31 5.23 ± 0.55 11.22 ± 0.67
80 mg% 24.72 ± 2.01 34.13 ± 2.02 40.13 ± 3.11 39.11 ± 2.11 44.33 ± 3.02 41.19 ± 2.67
T. catappa residual aqueous
40 mg% 17.69 ± 1.6 22.80 ± 1.01 23.82 ± 1.2 15.83 ± 0.78 42.94 ± 3.18 46.95 ± 3.55
60 mg% 9.91 ± 1.03 7.39 ± 0.98 3.07 ± 0.56 5.91 ± 0.76 32.43 ± 3.67 56.38 ± 4.01
80 mg% 2.19 ± 0.86 17.09 ± 1.56 13.51 ± 1.11 17.61 ± 1.14 22.17 ± 1.45 53.56 ± 3.86
  1. The results are mean (X) ± S.D of three (n = 3) determinations; mg% = mg/100 mL
  2. : Activation of poly-dHbS-M