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Table 4 Color attributes of pan bread crust as affected by addition of nano and fermented nano materials

From: Pan bread quality as affected by some nano and fermented-nano food industries by-products

Sample Lightness (L*) Redness (a*) Yellowness (b*) Total color differences (ΔE)
Pan bread made from wheat flours (control samples)
72% extraction 68.68A ± 0.28 10.39ED ± 0.13 31.72A ± 0.04 0.00 ± 0.00
82% extraction 54.31E ± 0.62 10.66CD ± 0.33 28.02D ± 0.12 14.84H ± 0.56
100% extraction 47.69F ± 0.41 12.17B ± 0.15 25.53F ± 0.11 21.96F ± 0.46
Pan bread made from wheat flour 72% incorporated with
Nano-wheat bran (%)
5 61.50B ± 0.18 9.88E ± 0.36 28.74D ± 0.52 7.89K ± 0.01
15 60.45C ± 0.43 12.53B ± 0.33 31.00B ± 0.03 8.83K ± 0.50
25 58.66D ± 0.11 10.01E ± 0.10 28.69D ± 0.03 10.74J ± 0.10
Nano-wheat germ (%)
5 58.46D ± 0.16 12.52B ± 0.11 30.35C ± 0.22 10.82J ± 0.21
15 46.61F ± 0.09 13.33A ± 0.11 25.99E ± 0.16 23.28F ± 0.03
25 38.09I ± 0.13 12.23B ± 0.22 18.65I ± 0.12 33.59B ± 0.08
Fermented nano-rice bran (%)
5 61.17BC ± 0.15 10.33ED ± 0.21 28.79D ± 0.06 8.33K ± 0.16
15 57.81D ± 0.35 9.05F ± 0.08 25.88E ± 0.11 12.65I ± 0.35
25 54.60E ± 0.27 8.95F ± 0.13 25.91E ± 0.03 15.56G ± 0.24
Fermented nano-carrot pomace (%)
5 47.11F ± 0.58 12.15B ± 0.29 25.20F ± 0.18 22.88F ± 0.63
15 39.72H ± 0.45 10.42DE ± 0.20 18.70I ± 0.06 32.01C ± 0.43
25 32.62J ± 0.30 8.78F ± 0.05 11.98J ± 0.03 41.39A ± 0.24
Fermented nano-pomegranate peel (%)
5 54.88E ± 0.34 10.93CD ± 0.14 28.69D ± 0.13 14.41H ± 0.37
15 41.72G ± 0.16 11.43C ± 0.30 22.34G ± 0.22 28.84E ± 0.23
25 40.30H ± 0.48 10.97CD ± 0.13 20.20H ± 0.03 30.90D ± 0.43
  1. Values in the same column followed by different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)