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Table 3 Texture profile parameters of pan bread as affected by addition of nano and fermented nano materials

From: Pan bread quality as affected by some nano and fermented-nano food industries by-products

Sample Hardness (N) Springiness (mm) Cohesiveness Chewiness
Pan bread made from wheat flours (control samples)
72%extraction 4.87M 7.51A 0.986A 36.05N
82%extraction 7.89L 7.35AB 0.972A 56.38M
100%extraction 37.10B 7.33AB 0.907B 246.77A
Pan bread made from wheat flour 72% incorporated with
Nano-wheat bran (%)
5 9.47K 7.14BCD 0.978A 59.36M
15 9.81K 7.40AB 0.912B 66.24L
25 15.03I 6.96DEF 1.000A 104.61G
Nano-wheat germ (%)
5 13.65J 7.42AB 0.901B 91.28J
15 14.32IJ 7.26ABC 0.902B 93.79IJ
25 26.03D 6.90DEF 0.868C 155.92C
Fermented nano-rice bran (%)
5 17.24H 7.04CDE 0.822D 99.81H
15 17.70H 6.82EF 0.795D 95.97HI
25 18.64G 6.40G 0.679E 81.00K
Fermented nano-carrot pomace (%)
5 17.80H 7.31ABC 0.882BC 114.80F
15 23.76F 6.15GH 0.802D 117.19F
25 29.73C 6.09H 0.689E 126.06E
Fermented nano-pomegranate peel (%)
5 13.83J 7.36AB 0.815D 82.94K
15 24.84E 6.72F 0.801D 133.66D
25 39.16A 6.74F 0.618F 163.22B
  1. Values in the same column followed by different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)