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  1. Indonesia has started the big project of COVID-19 vaccination program since 13 January 2021 by employing the first shot of vaccine to the President of Indonesia as the outbreak and rapid transmission of COVID-...

    Authors: Reviany V. Nidom, Setyarina Indrasari, Irine Normalina, Astria N. Nidom, Balqis Afifah, Lestari Dewi, Andra K. Putra, Arif N. M. Ansori, Muhammad K. J. Kusala, Mohammad Y. Alamudi and Chairul A. Nidom
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:200
  2. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of Nano-hydroxyapatite-modified conventional glass ionomer cement (NHA-GIC) and Nano-hydroxyapatite-modified resin-modified glass ionomer cement (N...

    Authors: Zeinab M. Zaki, Maha A. Niazy, Mohamed H. Zaazou, Shaymaa M. Nagi and Dina W. Elkassas
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:199

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:211

  3. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template is widespread due to its diverse metal nanostructures. Various solar selective black coatings on aluminum oxide template were investigated. Spectrally selective nano-coatin...

    Authors: H. S. Hussein, M. F. Shaffei, Ahmed M. Awad Abouelata and Mona A. Abdel-Fatah
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:198
  4. There are multiple strategies that have been suggested to attenuate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Caffeine has been shown to assist with blocking pain associated with DOMS. However, currently there is ...

    Authors: Janisa Andrea Muljadi, Patsorn Kaewphongsri, Kornkit Chaijenkij and Jatupon Kongtharvonskul
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:197

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:202

  5. One of the parameters required for the assessment of food and feed safety is detection and identification of genetically modified organisms. Legislation in some countries necessitates detection and quantificat...

    Authors: Hanaa Abdel-Sadek Oraby, Nadia Aboul-Ftooh Aboul-Maaty and Hayam Ahmad Al-Sharawi
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:196
  6. Lately, thermoplastic and thermoset polymers are integrated with natural fillers to harvest composites. Due to an excellent property profile, these composites find wide applications in engineering fields. This...

    Authors: Ernest Mbamalu Ezeh
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:195
  7. This study aimed to in vivo and in vitro evaluate the remineralization potential and shear bond strength (SBS) of experimentally prepared tri-calcium aluminate (C3A)-modified glass ionomer cements on sound and ar...

    Authors: M. M. Radwan, H. K. Abd EL-Hamid and Shaymaa M. Nagi
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:192
  8. This study focused on the evaluation of the bioactive compounds of Vernonia amygdalina Del. leaf extracts and their antibacterial potential on some water-related bacterial isolates. The bacterial isolates were co...

    Authors: Olubukola Olusola-Makinde, Olayinka Bukola Olabanji and Tope Abraham Ibisanmi
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:191
  9. Enormous improvements in dental materials’ manufacturing for the aim of producing durable dental materials without compromising the aesthetic properties were developed. One of the approaches that fulfill this ...

    Authors: Engie M. Safwat, Ahmad G. A. Khater, Ahmed G. Abd-Elsatar and Gamal A. Khater
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:190
  10. The excessive usage of herbicides to control herbs by farmers has become an issue of interest to the environmentalist due to the threat posed by such act to the ecosystem, and therefore, there is the need to c...

    Authors: Thomas Aondofa Nyijime, Abdullahi Muhammad Ayuba and Habibat Faith Chahul
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:189
  11. The transition to pulmonary respiration and the termination of foetal cardiovascular shunts is expected to commence immediately after birth. Subsequently, alveolar ventilation and tissue perfusion must be esta...

    Authors: Buhari Habibu, Mohammed Umaru Kawu, Tagang Aluwong and Hussaina Joan Makun
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:188
  12. The preparation of an effective drug delivery formulation is an urgent need to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Pentavalent antimonials and Amphotericin B (AmB) are considered to treat leishmaniasis; howeve...

    Authors: Aamir Sohail, Rahat Ullah Khan, Momin Khan, Mehvish Khokhar, Safat Ullah, Arshad Ali, Hazrat Bilal, Saadullah Khattak, Mirwaise Khan and Baseer Ahmad
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:187
  13. Africa is blessed with rich floral biodiversity which are harnessed as herbal medicines and remedies for several ailments. Since there has been evidence of organ toxicity following prolonged ingestion of medic...

    Authors: Uchechi E. Enenebeaku, Evangeline N. Okotcha, Lilian M. O. Oguoma, Ifeyinwa C. Mgbemena, Conrad K. Enenebeaku and Chiemeziem A. Onyeka
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:186
  14. The consumption of fresh vegetables and salads has become popular, and because of a greater understanding of health benefits, these are most often eaten raw or with minimal processing.

    Authors: Igba Profit, Adebayo Sami’a Yunus, Gbonjubola Olusesan Adeshina, Babajide Akinyele Tytler, Ahmed Babangida Suleiman and Busayo Olalekan Olayinka
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:185
  15. African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata) are hermaphroditic pulmonate nocturnal gastropods of the Achatinidae family. The snail is one of West Africa's largest known terrestrial snails. The majority of ...

    Authors: Titus Adeniyi Olusi, Olugbenga Samuel Babatunde and Muideen Adeniji
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:183
  16. A study was undertaken to assess the effect of bioactive peptides derived from cottonseed (BPC) supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum and yolk in...

    Authors: Nasir Landy and Farshid Kheiri
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:182
  17. Nanotechnology's rapid development has been in great demand, particularly for silver nanoparticles, which are useful in a variety of industries including medicine, textiles, and home appliances. Silver nanopar...

    Authors: Prashant J. Burange, Mukund G. Tawar, Ritu A. Bairagi, Vedanshu R. Malviya, Vanshika K. Sahu, Sakshi N. Shewatkar, Roshani A. Sawarkar and Renuka R. Mamurkar
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:181
  18. Haemonchosis is a serious disease affecting ruminants’ productivity worldwide. Medicinal plants are deemed one of the most natural bio-products safely used as alternatives to the synthetic anthelmintics. In th...

    Authors: Noha M. F. Hassan, Ahmed A. Zaghawa, Nadia M. T. Abu-Elezz, Mohamed A. Nayel and Akram A. Salama
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:180
  19. Man has a long history of utilizing herbal preparations to treat infections. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the quantitative phytochemical components, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis,...

    Authors: Kingsley Erhons Enerijiofi, Funmilayo Hannah Akapo and Joseph Omorogiuwa Erhabor
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:179
  20. Was to evaluate effect of clove, turmeric and garlic nano-herbal extracts on surface roughness and microhardness of demineralized dentin, and their bactericidal effect on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus so...

    Authors: Lamiaa M. Moharam, Doaa M. Sadony, Manal M. Adel and Karim Montasser
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:178
  21. Using of nanoparticles in various aspects of life including agriculture, medicine and industry is very crucial. One of the important source for Fe nutrition in plants is Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) due to...

    Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Magda H. Mohamed, Mervat Sh. Sadak and Alice T. Thalooth
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:177
  22. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (W. somnifera) is a herb commonly known by its English name as Winter Cherry. Africa is indigenous to many medicinal plants and natural products. However, there is inadequate documen...

    Authors: Henok Kessete Afewerky, Ayeni Emmanuel Ayodeji, Bashir Bolaji Tiamiyu, Joshua Iseoluwa Orege, Emmanuel Sunday Okeke, Aanuoluwapo Opeyemi Oyejobi, Petuel Ndip Ndip Bate and Sherif Babatunde Adeyemi
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:176
  23. Postharvest treatments are crucial to the quality of cocoa finished products. This study aimed at investigating the effects of durations of fermentation and drying on the quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bea...

    Authors: Emmanuel Ackah and Eric Dompey
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:175

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:184

  24. Cryptosporidium spp. is an intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a diarrhoeal disease of humans and domestic animals. Transmission of Cryptosporidiosis to humans and other anima...

    Authors: Akinbode Ayekooto Olonisakin and Titus Adeniyi Olusi
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:174
  25. The increase in multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic bacteria responsible for infectious diseases has led to lack of effectiveness of some antibiotics. The ability of Escherichia coli to harbor resistant g...

    Authors: Martha Uzoaru Ajuga, Kome Otokunefor and Obakpororo Ejiro Agbagwa
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:173
  26. Dromedary camels could be a successful and economic meat provider in poor greenery lands where feeds and water are scarcely available. Moreover, camels need lower amounts of protein in their rations than other...

    Authors: A. Y. El-Badawi, A. Hassan, A. Abedo, M. Yacout, M. Khalel, G. Abou-Ward, F. Helal and S. El-Naggar
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:172
  27. Blood cleansing, purification, detoxification or strengthening is an ancient folkloric East African practice without any validated scientific underpinnings. This study was undertaken to retrieve ethnobotanical...

    Authors: Timothy Omara
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:171
  28. Two separate experiments were conducted in the minor season from September to November, 2019 and major season from March to May, 2020 to determining the type of soil amendment and transplanting age that can be...

    Authors: Isaac Addo, Kwadwo Gyasi Santo, Abdul Aziz Khalid and Emmanuel Ackah
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:170
  29. The use of active carbons derived from waste biomass as adsorbents in the remediation of wastewater remains a valuable and cost-effective technology when compared to the use of commercial active carbon for the...

    Authors: Enebi Estella Jasper, Jude Chinedu Onwuka and Yakubu Manasseh Bidam
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:168
  30. The most well-known cause of cancer deaths identified in female is breast cancer. Several drugs approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of breast cancer may have adverse health eff...

    Authors: Sagiru Hamza Abdullahi, Adamu Uzairu, Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim and Abdullahi Bello Umar
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:167
  31. Sugar beet is considered a very important strategic economic crop, as it comes at the second place for white sugar production in Egypt after sugar cane and the sugar percentage in its roots is 20%. This work w...

    Authors: Almoataz Bellah Ali El-Mouhamady, Magdy Ahmad Al-Kordy and Tarik Abdel-Fatah Elewa
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:166
  32. Ipekere agbado is a traditional maize-based snack consumed in South Western part of Nigeria, but low in protein content and deteriorate within few days. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the chemical composit...

    Authors: Matthew Olusola Oluwamukomi, Timilehin David Oluwajuyitan and Oluwatobiloba Tolulope Makinde
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:165
  33. Candida species is considered one of the normal inhabitant commensal microbiota of the human body. However, it can also act as an opportunistic pathogen especially in hospitals (nosocomial infection) and among im...

    Authors: Anas Salama Sayed Hemaid, Mohamed Mahmoud Effat Abdelghany and Tarek Mohamed Abdelghany
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:163

    The Correction to this article has been published in Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:201

  34. Data on the prevalence, genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of colonizing and infection-associated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains both in humans and animals in Tanzania are scarce. Given the w...

    Authors: Tutu Mzee, Theckla Kazimoto, Joseph Madata, Rose Masalu, Markus Bischoff, Mecky Matee and Sören L. Becker
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:162
  35. The relation between the macronutrients P and K seems to be synergistic due to the beneficial effects of the interaction between (P × K) and varies according to the variety used. Therefore, two field experimen...

    Authors: E. M. Abd El Lateef, Asal M. Wali and M. S. Abd El-Salam
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:161
  36. Extraction of the first premolar followed by canine retraction into the extraction space is a common treatment in orthodontics. Molar rotation occurs when they are used as anchorage units for the canine distal...

    Authors: Reem M. AlShazly, Ahmad F. Almohammad, Hend Salah ElSayed and Amr Ragab EL-Beialy
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:160
  37. The atmosphere is usually contaminated by heavy metals from different natural and anthropogenic sources. The levels of heavy metals in the atmosphere often become harmful and cause environmental pollution with...

    Authors: Bright Chigozie Ichu, Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara, Emmanuel Nnamdi Ejike, Amarachi Udoka Nkwoada, Francis Chizoruo Ibe and Emmanuel Chuka Dioha
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:159
  38. There is an exponential rise in the use of farming chemicals in agricultural practices ostensibly to increase food production. The chewing of fresh khat leaves and shoots has spread across the world from ancie...

    Authors: Albert M. Oyugi, Joshua K. Kibet and John O. Adongo
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:158
  39. Panicle-feeding insects are a challenge in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivation but most farmers do not protect the crop. Here, the effects of pest management in different sorghum cultivars on grain ...

    Authors: Jerry A. Nboyine, Kenneth Opare-Obuobi, Iddrisu Yahaya, Benjamin K. Badii, Francis Kusi, Asieku Yahaya and Gloria Adazebra
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:157
  40. Estuarine and marine water quality has remarkable importance because these water resources are used for multiple reasons for instance: transportation, tourism, recreation, and other human or economic ways to u...

    Authors: Ebenezer Aquisman Asare, Zaini Bin Assim, Rafeah Binti Wahi, Rajuna Bin Tahir and Eric Kwabena Droepenu
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:156
  41. Pet birds are housed and reared exclusively for ornamental use. These include psittaciformes (parrots, parakeets, budgerigars, love birds) and passeriformes (e.g. canaries, finches, sparrows, also called songb...

    Authors: Adelekan Oluseyi Okunlade, Oluwaseun Olanrewaju Esan and Akinlabi Oladele Ogunleye
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:155
  42. This study aimed to development new faba bean hybrids resistant to chocolate spot disease and using them in breeding programs. Six faba bean genotypes were crossed in a diallel system excluding reciprocals dur...

    Authors: M. M. F. Abdalla, M. M. Shafik, Heba A. M. A. Saleh, M. A. Khater and N. A. Ghazy
    Citation: Bulletin of the National Research Centre 2021 45:154

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