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Table 1 Test for the detection of phytochemicals.

From: Traditional knowledge and phytochemical screening of plants used in snakebite prevention in Benin

Phytochemical compounds Test Observations (positive results)
Alkaloids Mayer’s test Yellowish-white precipitate
Dragendorff’s test Orange-red precipitate
Tannins Ferric chloride test Blue-black coloration
Catechic tannins Stiasny’s test Precipitated pink
Gallic tannins Ferric chloride and saturation with sodium acetate blue tint
Flavones Shinoda test with magnesium powder Orange coloration
Anthocyanins Hydrochloric acid and 50% ammonia Purplish red coloration
leuco-anthocyanins Shinoda’s test Brown red coloration
Quinonic derivatives Borntrager’s test pink or purplish red coloration
Saponosides Foam index test Significant presence of foam of at least 1 cm
Triterpenoids Liebermann–Burchard test Blue, green or purple Coloration
Steroids Kedde’s test Red wine coloration
Mucilages Absolute alcohol test Flaky precipitate
Reductive compounds Fehling liquor test Brick red precipitate
Free anthracenes Test with chloroform and ammonia No red coloring