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Table 1 Medicinal plants studied for their genotoxic potential

From: Genotoxicity induced by medicinal plants

Sl no References Plants used Family Genotoxic assay Result Extract Model organism/ cell line
1 Tsuboy et al. (2010) Coccoloba mollis Polygonaceae Ames test, Comet assay, Micronucleus test No genotoxic effect Ethanol (95%) HTC cell
2 Vidal et al. (2010) Echinodorus macrophyllus Alismataceae Lysogenic induction assay Genotoxic Ethanol (70%) E. coli
3 Boiera et al. (2010) Passiflora alata Passifloraceae Comet and Micronucleus test Genotoxic Aqueous Mice and Wistar Rat
4 Kulkarni et al. (2010) Persea americana Lauraceae Chromosome aberration assay Genotoxic Methanol (50%) Human peripheral blood cell
5 Chichioco-Hernandez et al. (2011) Cassia fistula,
Derris eliptica,
Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium,
Michelia alba, Pogostemon cablin,
Ricinus communis
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Moraceae
Fabaceae
Magnoliaceae
Lamiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Vitotox assay No genotoxic effect (genotoxic for P. cablin and R. communis) Methanol (100%) Salmonella typhimurium
6 Regner et al. (2011) Pterocaulon polystachyum Asteraceae Comet assay Genotoxic (Only in kidney tissue) Hexane Mice
7 Asare et al. (2012) Phyllanthus niruni Phyllanthaceae Chromosome aberration assay Non-genotoxic Ethanol Rat
8 Raymundo et al. (2012) Maytenus robusta Celastraceae Comet assay Weak genotoxic effect Hydroalcohol Mice
9 Ping et al. (2012) Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Allium cepa assay Dose dependent genotoxicity Methanol Allium cepa root
10 dos Santos et al. (2012) Bauhinia platypetala Leguminoceae Alkaline comet assay Genotoxic Ethanol Saccharomyces cerevisiae
11 dos Santos et al. (2013) Arrabidaea chica Bignoniaceae Micronucleus and alkaline comet assay No genotoxic effect Chloroform fraction Mice
12 Soumaya et al. (2013) Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Chromosome aberration assay Genotoxic Methanol BALB/c mice
13 Demma et al. (2013) Glinus lotoides Ranunculaceae Comet assay Genotoxic Methanol 60% Rat
14 Boldbaatar et al. (2014) Leptopyrum fumarioides Amaryllidaceae Comet assay Genotoxic Methanol Mice
15 Nair and Van Staden (2014) Boophone disticha Euphorbiaecae (review) Non-genotoxic - -
16 Njoya et al. (2014) Codiaeum variegatum Euphorbiacea Comet assay Non-genotoxic Aqueous Mice lymphoma, primary hepatic cell, HepG2 cell
17 Discon et al. (2015) Grewia tiliaefolia Tiliaceae Comet assay Non-genotoxic Methanol Wistar rat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
18 Maronpot (2015) Ashitaba Chalcone Apiaceae Bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration, mouse micronuclear assay Non-genotoxic Cyclodextrin Salmonella typhimurium, Mice
19 Shin et al. (2015) Polygala tenuifolia Polygalaceae Bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration, mouse micronuclear assay Non-genotoxic Ethanol 75% Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, mice, Chinese hamster
20 Eck-Varanka et al. (2015) Lythrum salicaria Lythraceae Mussel Micronucleus test Genotoxic Aqueous Unio pictorum
21 Akhtar et al. (2016) Terminalia citrina Combrataceae Ames reverse mutagenicity assay Genotoxic Ethanol and aqueous Salmonella typhimurium
22 Sassi et al. (2016) Ceratonia siliqua Fabaceae Comet assay No genotoxic effect Aqueous Murine Leukemia cell
23 de Oliveira et al. (2016) Morus alba Moraceae Micronucleus test Genotoxic Ethanol Swiss Mice
24 Mendonca et al. (2016) Cecropia pachystachyca Urticaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Genotoxic to brain tissue Aqueous Mice
25 Almeida et al. (2016) Jatropha gossypiifolia Euphorbiaceae Allium cepa assay Genotoxic (not in aqueous) Ethanol Allium cepa root
26 Nazari et al. (2017) Glycyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae Review Genotoxic at high doses Aqueous Ethanol Rat/mice
27 Sharif et al. (2017) Kalanchoe laciniata Crassulaceae Ames and MTT assay Weak genotoxic effect Methanol and n-hexane Salmonella typhimurium
28 Ishikawa et al. (2017) Doliocarpus dentatus Dilleniaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Not genotoxic Ethanol Mycobacterium tuberculosis
29 Quadros et al. (2017) Crataegus oxycantha Rosaceae Ames and micronucleus test Genotoxic at high doses Methanol (70%) Leukocyte and HepG2 cell
30 Madikizela and McGaw (2017) Pittosporum viridiflorum
Hypoxis colchicifolia
Pittosporaceae
Hypoxidaceae
Salmonella microsome assay No reported genotoxicity Acetone, Ethanol (70%), aqueous Salmonella typhimurium
31 Acesio et al. (2017) Annona muricata Annonaceae Micronucleus test Non-genotoxic Ethanol Mice
32 Yonekubo et al. (2018) Cratageus oxyacantha Rosaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Genotoxic at high dose Methanol (70%) Mice
33 de Oliveira et al. (2018) Vochysia divergens Vochysiaceae Micronucleus test Genotoxic at high concentration Ethanol Male Swiss mice
34 Kahaliw et al. (2018) Pterolobium stellatum, Otostegia integrifolia, Vernonia amygdalina Fabaceae
Lamiaceae
Asteraceae
Alkaline comet assay Genotoxic Methanol HepG2 cells
35 Singh et al. (2018) Meyna spinosa, Oroxylum indicum Rubiaceae
Bignoniaceae
Comet and Micronucleus test MS (genotoxic); OI (non-genotoxic) Hydroalcohol BALB/c mice
36 Jeong et al. (2018a, b) Eriobotrya japonica Rosaceae Bacterial reverse mutation assay, micronucleus assay Non-genotoxic Ethanol Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli. Chinese Hamster, mice
37 Soleimani et al. (2019) Silybum marianum Asteraceae Review No genotoxic effect - Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli
38 de Medeiros et al. (2019) Cereus jamacaru Cactaceae Micronucleus test Genotoxic Ethanol Rat
39 Maistro et al. (2019) Salix alba Saliaceae Comet assay Low genotoxic effect; when not digested by Liver enzymes Ethanol (70%) Human peripheral leukocyte and HepG2
40 Tsafantakis et al. (2019) Opuntia ficus indica Cacteceae Comet and the yH2AX In-Cell Western Assay Not genotoxic, but fruit flesh and seed extract -genotoxic Aqueous HepG2 cells
41 Rocha et al. (2019) Pityrocarpa monilifomis Fabaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Non-genotoxic Cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, methanol Mice
42 Boas et al. (2019) Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Non-genotoxic Aqueous Rat
43 Kon-Young et al. (2020) GHX02 (A mixture)
Gwaruin
Haengin
Hwangryeon
Hwangkeum
Cucurbitaceae
Rosaceae
Ranunculaceae
Lamiaceae
Comet assay, in vivo Micronucleus test, bacterial reverse mutation, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay In vitro genotoxic
In vivo non-genotoxic
Aqueous Sprague–Dawley rats
44 Beeran et al. (2020) Vernonia cinerea Asteraceae Comet assay Genotoxic Dichloromethane Human adenocarcinoma
45 Paw et al. (2020) Curcuma caesia Zingiberaceae Allium cepa assay Negligible Rhizome Oil Allium cepa root
46 Gogoi et al. (2020) Cymbopogon khasianus Poaceae Allium cepa assay moderate effect Methanol Allium cepa root
47 Luo et al. (2020) Eucommia ulmoides Eucommiaceae Micronucleus and chromosomal assay non-genotoxic Ethanol (70%) Wistar rat and Mice
48 de Moura et al. (2020) Himatanthus drasticus Apocyanaceae Comet assay genotoxic Aqueous Mice
49 Szokalo et al. (2020) Smallanthus sonchifolius Asteraceae Micronucelus test Genotoxic at high doses Aqueous Chinese hamster, HepG2 cell
50 Saravanan et al. (2020) Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Bacterial reverse mutation assay, Mouse Lymphoma Tk assay, Micronucleus test Weak genotoxic effect Ethanol Salmonella typhimurium, Mice
51 de Quadros et al. (2020) Rubus rosifolius Rosaceae Comet and Micronucleus test Genotoxic Methanol HepG2 cells
52 Zhao et al. (2020) Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae Bacterial reverse mutation test, Mammalian chromosomal test, Micronucleus test Not genotoxic indole alkaloid extract Salmonella typhimurium, Chinese hamster, Mice
53 Dey et al. (2021) Aristolochia indica Aristolochiacaeae Allium cepa assay Genotoxic Methanol Allium cepa root
54 de Souza et al. (2020) Chaptalia nutants Asteraceae Allium cepa assay Not genotoxic Hydromethanol Allium cepa root
55 Ahmadi et al. (2021) Ziziphora clinopodioides Lamiaceae Comet assay Dose dependent genotoxicity Ethanol Human blood leukocyte
56 Tavares et al. (2021) Sapindus saponaria Sapindaceae Ames test Genotoxic 10% (w/w) Insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) HepG2 cells
57 Asita et al. (2021) Cannabis sativa Cannabaceae Allium cepa assay Genotoxic Ethanol, methanol Allium cepa root
58 Ribeiro et al. (2021) Vitex megapotamica Lamiaceae Comet assay non-genotoxic Aqueous Wistar rat
59 Ayubi et al. (2021) Zataria multiflora Lamiaceae Comet assay non-genotoxic Hydroalcohol Wistar rat