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Table 1 Characteristics of different types of structural protein (Haque et al. 2020; Huang et al. 2020; Boopathi et al. 2021; Mousavizadeh and Ghasemi 2020)

From: Current challenges in different approaches to control COVID-19: a comprehensive review

Type of structural protein Characteristics
Nucleocapsid protein (N) N-protein coats the viral RNA genome which plays a vital role in its replication and transcription. It is responsible for encapsulating and protecting (+)-RNA, which contains the virus genome
Spike protein (S) Type I membrane glycoprotein is made of 1160–1400 amino acids
S-protein facilitates viral entrance into the host cell by mediating receptor-binding and membrane fusion between the virus and the host cell
Envelope protein (E) E-protein is a tiny membrane protein with 76–109 amino acids that is a minor component of the viral particle. It is involved in virus assembly, host cell membrane permeability, and virus–host cell contact
Membrane protein (M) The M-protein is most prevalent on the viral surface and is thought to be the coronavirus's major organizer. It neutralizes the virus-specific antibodies that have formed inside the host cell
Determines the shape of the viral envelope
HE protein The HE protein may have a role in viral entrance; it is not necessary for virus replication, but it appears to be important for natural host cell infection