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Table 3 Classification of contamination factor

From: Effect of urbanization on heavy metal contamination: a study on major townships of Kannur District in Kerala, India

Contamination factor Contamination level
CF < 1 Low contamination
1 ≤ CF < 3 Moderate contamination
3 ≤ CF < 6 Considerable contamination
CF > 6 Very high contamination
  1. Vineethkumar et al. (2020) and Sheela et al. (2012)