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Table 2 Effect of palm oil fractions on levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in tissues and serum of rats administered cadmium (µmol/mg protein)

From: Palm oil extracts protected against cadmium chloride poisoning via inhibition of oxidative stress in rats

Tissues Experimental groups
1 2 3 4 5 6
Twelve hours
Liver 22.25 ± 3.52a 12.75 ± 2.22b 14.00 ± 1.83b 16.50 ± 2.08b 15.05 ± 2.25b 14.25 ± 3.86b
Kidney 16.32 ± 1.83a 11.85 ± 2.55b 12.69 ± 2.40b 14.67 ± 1.30b 11.79 ± 1.80b 11.72 ± 1.4b
Heart 8.29 ± 0.82a 4.61 ± 0.39b 6.36 ± 1.49ab 5.99 ± 1.23ab 5.12 ± 0.91ab 8.15 ± 1.52a
Brain 1.96 ± 0.46 2.12 ± 0.39 1.74 ± 0.54 1.27 ± 0.19 1.69 ± 0.52 1.22 ± 0.39
Muscle 2.48 ± 0.22 2.04 ± 0.39 2.10 ± 0.32 1.80 ± 0.59 2.10 ± 0.199 2.10 ± 0.21
Serum 10.22 ± 1.86 8.00 ± 1.42 10.64 ± 1.54 9.94 ± 2.95 9.53 ± 1.47 9.39 ± 1.41
Twenty four hours
Liver 21.10 ± 2.58a 7.75 ± 1.71b 11.23 ± 2.45bc 15.75 ± 0.96c 12.71 ± 2.14c 13.88 ± 2.58c
Kidney 13.76 ± 1.26a 5.78 ± 0.73b 10.95 ± 1.62ac 12.88 ± 0.90ac 10.45 ± 1.49c 10.75 ± 1.75c
Heart 7.55 ± 0.97a 4.30 ± 0.48b 5.50 ± 1.17a 5.84 ± 0.87a 5.17 ± 0.92a 6.68 ± 1.07a
Brain 2.80 ± 0.75a 2.02 ± 0.31b 1.82 ± 0.35bc 1.36 ± 0.15c 1.66 ± 0.32bc 1.12 ± 0.29c
Muscle 2.43 ± 0.24 1.94 ± 0.48 1.99 ± 0.38 1.83 ± 0.43 1.99 ± 0.25 1.99 ± 0.24
Serum 10.05 ± 1.57a 5.02 ± 0.91b 9.35 ± 1.42a 8.40 ± 2.09ac 8.08 ± 1.58bc 7.25 ± 1.32c
Forty eight hours
Liver 20.00 ± 1.63a 7.00 ± 1.64b 9.70 ± 1.83b 14.50 ± 2.08c 11.21 ± 2.65bc 11.50 ± 1.91c
Kidney 11.96 ± 1.67a 5.48 ± 0.97b 9.50 ± 1.04ac 11.38 ± 1.41a 8.95 ± 0.87c 9.70 ± 0.93ac
Heart 7.30 ± 1.20a 4.15 ± 0.60b 5.03 ± 0.76b 5.37 ± 0.45ab 4.70 ± 0.95b 5.95 ± 1.32ab
Brain 2.71 ± 0.77a 1.80 ± 0.16b 1.70 ± 0.26b 1.29 ± 0.11b 1.50 ± 0.12b 1.26 ± 0.43b
Muscle 2.27 ± 0.28 1.81 ± 0.35 1.79 ± 0.17 1.70 ± 0.48 1.87 ± 0.15 1.85 ± 0.19
Serum 9.35 ± 1.07a 4.90 ± 0.96b 8.35 ± 0.53a 7.43 ± 1.16a 7.38 ± 0.97a 6.63 ± 0.96ab
  1. All values are expressed as Mean ± SD, values sharing different alphabet superscript on the same row showed a significant difference.
  2. Key: 1 = Control, 2 = CdCl2 3 = CF + CdCl2, 4  = GF + CdCl2,5 = BF + CdCl2, 6 = UF + CdCl2