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Table 5 Advantages and drawbacks of Cu(II) detection methods

From: Recent trends of copper detection in water samples

Analytical Method Advantages Disadvantages Reference
Atomic absorption spectrometry High selectivity
Provides reliable and accurate outcomes
Fast and straightforward
Equipment and operating costs are relatively high
It requires well-trained and experienced staff
It requires preparation standards for the calibration
It cannot be used to determine the isotope or the oxidation state
Zhang et al. (2020)
ICP-OES Multielement technique
Fast and straightforward
Low sample volume
Equipment and operating costs are relatively high
It requires well-trained and experienced staff
It requires preparation standards for the calibration
It cannot determine the isotope or the oxidation state
Balcaen et al. (2015), Council (2004)
ICP-MS low detection limits
High resolution and tandem mass spectrometry
Multielement technique
Low sample volume
Equipment and operating costs are relatively high
It requires well-trained and experienced staff
It requires preparation standards for the calibration
It requires Interference control
Balcaen et al. (2015), Poirier et al. (2016), Wilschefski and Baxter (2019)
Spectrophotometric Simplicity
Low cost
Availability
It is a precise, accurate and sensitive technique when appropriate chromogenic reagents are available
It is time-consuming
A large volume of organic solvent is required
Alharthi and Al-Saidi, (2020), Raafid et al. (2020)
Sensors Fast and real-time measurements with high sensitivity and specificity
Possibility of continuous (online) analysis
Easy to operate and economically affordable
Some sensors may have a short lifetime and are susceptible to damage and break
Special calibration and cleaning solutions may be needed
Qualified and skilled operators are required to prepare samples and deal with the complex analytical method
Hung et al. (2021)
Voltammetric Cheap cost
Easy fabrication
Excellent electrochemical properties
Rapid determination of Cu(II) ions and other heavy metals
Agreement with the results from ICP-MS
A susceptible method is affected by pH, humidity, and temperature, leading to a variation in results
Produce large volumes of waste hazards
Requires indicator for the reaction to occur
Zhuang et al. (2011)
Chromatography Small sample volume
High selectivity in samples with complex matrix
It uses chemicals that are inexpensive, safe, and environmentally friendly
Equipment and operating costs are relatively high
It requires well-trained and experienced staff
It requires preparation standards for the calibration
An error occurs due to overload of sample
High operational pressure required to attain efficient separation
A relatively long time of analysis
Jackson (2006), Kaiser (1974), Kulisa et al. (1999)