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Table 3 Characteristic features of Costus speciosus (Devi and Urooj 2010; Singh et al., 2014)

From: Phytochemical competence and pharmacological perspectives of an endangered boon—Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm.: a comprehensive review

Features of C. speciosus
Plant type Herbaceous, perennial, seed propagated, and vegetatively propagated
Height of the plant In frost-free areas Up to 3.1 m
In cooler regions About 1.8 m
Stem Stem sub woody at the base
No characteristic taste and odor
Leaves Number of leaves Usually 15–20
Color of leaves Dark green
Arrangement Alternate and Spiral arrangement
Length 5.7–7.5 cm
Shape Sessile or sub-sessile
Leaf blade Oblong or lanceolate
Dorsal surface texture Silky instances
Ventral surface texture Silky and pubescent
Petiole 5–7 mm
Leaf sheath Coriaceous (leathery texture)
Ligule Absent
Taste and odor No characteristic taste and odor
Inflorescence Type of inflorescence Spike (dense spike) 5- 12.5 by 3.8- 7.5 cm
Flower color Large, white, and clustered in terminal globose heads
Bracts 2–3.2 cm long, ovate, acuminate, often pungently mucronate, large, bright red, or shiny brown in color
Bracteole Pale red, Solitary below the calyx, and 1.6 mm long
Calyx Red, 3.2 cm long, lobes 6 mm long, and deltoid-ovate cuspidate
Corolla Corolla tube as long as the calyx; lobes ovate-oblong, apiculate, the lateral lobes 3.5 by 1.3 cm, and the dorsal 4 by 2 cm
Taste and odor Characteristic taste and odor
Labellum White, trumpet-shaped, toothed, and crisped apex, overlapping edges
Stamen Crest yellow stamens, petaloid, and globose single stamen, the style running between the two halves of the large anther
Fruit Globosely trigonous red-colored capsule
Seeds Black and glossy approximately 3 mm black, five in number with a white fleshy aril