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Table 6 Potential health effects associated with organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides applied in khat farming

From: A review of the health implications of heavy metals and pesticide residues on khat users

Classification of pesticide Trade name Molecular formula Name of the organic active ingredient Potential health effects and hazards linked to high levels of exposure References
Organophosphates Actellic C11H20N3O3PS Primiphos-methyl or O-[2-(Diethylamino)-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl] O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate Cholinesterase inhibitor Syngenta (2013)
     Eye and skin irritant WHO (2013)
  Malathion C10H19O6PS2 O,O-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate Cholinesterase inhibitor
Dermal toxicity
Reproductive and developmental effects in mammals
Endocrine disruption
Olovi et al. (2013)
Cabello et al. (2003)
Tchounwou et al. (2015)
  Diazinon C12H21N2O3PS O,O-Diethyl O-[4-methyl-6-(propan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl] phosphorothioate Endocrine disruption Nicolopoulou-Stamati P et al. (2016)
Organochlorines DDT C14H9Cl5 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Possible carcinogen
Endocrine disruption
Poor embryonic development
Wallace (2015)
Garabrant et al. (1992) Nicolopoulou-Stamati et al. (2016)
Tiemann (2008)
  DDE C14H8Cl4 Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene Possible carcinogen
Neurodevelopment effect in children
Endocrine disruption
Breast Cancer Fund Organization (2004)
Nicolopoulou-Stamati et al. (2016)
Eskenazi et al. (2006)
  Aldrin C12H8Cl6 Hexachlorohexahydrodimethano-naphthalene Endocrine disruption Lemaire et al. (2006)
  BHC C6H6Cl6 Benzene hexachloride Endocrine disruption Nicolopoulou-Stamati et al. (2016)