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Table 4 Adverse health effects associated with toxic levels of selected heavy metals

From: A review of the health implications of heavy metals and pesticide residues on khat users

Health effects Physiological symptoms associated with the heavy metal Heavy metals determined in khat References
Cardiovascular diseases Heart rate increase, Dry mouth, Blurred vision Pb, Cd, Cu Chowdhury et al. (2018)
Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Cd Pizzaro et. al. (1999), Sane et al. (2018), Leyssens et. al. (2017), Lia et al. (2019), Tinkov et al. (2018)
Reproductive disorders Hampered fetal growth, Fertility disorders Pb Kumar et al. (2020)
Carcinogenic effects Tumor growth Cd Genchi et al. (2020)
Neurological disorders Reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) in children, Mental retardation, Behavioral disorders, Suicide attempts Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe WHO (2019), Santos et. al. (2019), Dobson et al. (2004), Sane et al. (2018)