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Table 3 Antimicrobial resistance rates of S. aureus in humans

From: Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Tanzania: a systematic review

Antibiotic (N*) (% range) Mean resistance (n/N*) (%) References
Resistance rates in S. aureus isolates from human colonization     
 Penicillin(420) (96–100) (416/420) (99%) Joachim et al. (2018), Geofrey et al. (2015), Joachim et al. (2017), Moremi et al. (2019)
 Ampicillin (151) (84–100) (133/151) (88%) Katakweba et al. (2016), Okamo et al. (2016), Ngocho et al. (2015)
 Tetracycline (381) (9–95) (103/381) (27%) Geofrey et al. (2015), Moyo et al. (2014), Katakweba et al. (2016), Okamo et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2019)
 Erythromycin (402) (19–100) (163/402) (41%) Joachim et al. (2018), Geofrey et al. (2015), Okamo et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2019)
 Gentamicin (540) (9–34) (105/540) (21%) Joachim et al. (2018), Joachim et al. (2017), Moyo et al. (2014), Katakweba et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2019), Ngocho et al. (2015)
 Co-trimoxazole (443) (14–66) (205/443) (46%) Joachim et al. (2018), Geofrey et al. (2015), Moyo et al. (2014), Katakweba et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2019)
 Ciprofloxacin (233) (4–11) (15/233) (6%) Joachim et al. (2017), Moyo et al. (2014)
 Clindamycin (336) (9–76) (33/336) (9.8%) Joachim et al. (2018), Geofrey et al. (2015), Moremi et al. (2019)
 Cefoxitin (546) (2–100) (103/546) (19%) Joachim et al. (2018, Geofrey et al. (2015), Moyo et al. (2014), Okamo et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2019)
Resistance rates in S. aureus isolates from invasive (blood-borne) infections     
 Penicillin (46) (23–80) (40/46) (87%) Kayange et al. (2010), Onken et al. (2015), Thriemer et al. (2012)
 Ampicillin (50) (85–100) (46/50) (92%) Mhada et al. (2012, Seni et al. (2019a)
 Erythromycin (60) (20–66) (38/60) (63%) Kayange et al. (2010), Seni et al. (2019a, Thriemer et al. (2012)
 Gentamicin (50) (26–56) (21/50) (42%) Mhada et al. (2012), Seni et al. (2019a)
 Co-trimoxazole (69) (22–96) (46/69) (66%) Kayange et al. (2010), Seni et al. (2019a), Onken et al. (2015), Thriemer et al. (2012)
 Clindamycin (32) (44) (14/32) (44%) Kayange et al. (2010)
 Methicillin (245) (23) (57/245) (23%) Moyo et al. (2010)
 Cefoxitin (69) (0–32) (17/69) (25%) Kayange et al. (2010; Seni et al. (2019a), Onken et al. (2015), Thriemer et al. (2012)
Resistance rates in S. aureus isolates from non-invasive infections     
 Penicillin (202) (30–100) (183/202) (91%) Manyahi et al. (2014), Kazimoto et al. (2018), Moremi et al. (2014), Marwa et al. (2015), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Ampicillin (263) (47–88) (177/263) (67%) Mhada et al. (2012), Mwambete and Eulambius (2018)
 Tetracycline (67) (6–45) (14/67) (21%) Marwa et al. (2015), Mushi et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Erythromycin (221) (14–46) (81/221) (37%) Moremi et al. (2014), Marwa et al. (2015), Mushi et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Gentamicin (339) (11–52) (110/339) (32%) Mhada et al. (2012), Mwambete and Eulambius (2018), Moremi et al. (2014), Mushi et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Co-trimoxazole (232) (43–74) (115/232) (50%) Mwambete and Eulambius (2018), Moremi et al. (2014), Marwa et al. (2015), Mushi et al. (2016) Seni et al. (2019b), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Ciprofloxacin (187) (4–25) (20/187) (17%) Mwambete and Eulambius (2018), Marwa et al. (2015), Mushi et al. (2016)
 Clindamycin (42) (21–63) (19 /42) (45%) Moremi et al. (2014), Moremi et al. (2012)
 Cefoxitin (226) (1–100) (55/226) (24%) Manyahi et al. (2014), Kazimoto et al. (2018), Moremi et al. (2014), Mushi et al. (2016), Moremi et al. (2012)