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Table 2 Human-related studies investigating S. aureus in different conditions and populations across Tanzania

From: Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Tanzania: a systematic review

S. no

Prevalence S. aureus % (n)

Prevalence MRSA % (n)


Source of S. aureus isolates




41.4% (157)

37.6% (59)

Healthcare workers adults male and female from June 2016 to October 2016

Nasal carriage

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Joachim et al. (2018)



11.8% in ICU patients and 2.1% in ICU HCW

ICU patients (male and female of all age groups) and ICU HCW from October 2012 to March 2013

Nasal carriage

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Geofrey et al. (2015)


34.5% (89) in swabs collected on admission

20% (4) in swabs collected 48 h after admission

24.7% (22) from samples on admission, and 50% (2) in samples collected after 48 h

Patients admitted to emergency or medical ward aged 5 and above

Nasal carriage

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Joachim et al. (2017)


40% (114)

8.3% (12)

Healthy children < 5years

From April 2010 to June 2010

Nasal carriage

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Moyo et al. (2014)


Overall 23.2% (223), whereby 26.2% (95), detected in children with acute respiratory infection and 21.4% (128) were detected in children without acute respiratory infection


Children 2–10 years old aged with axillary temperature of ≤ 38 °C Dar es Salaam from April to August 2008 (DSM) and June to December 2008 (Ifakara)

Nasal carriage

Dar es Salaam and Morogoro (Eastern zone)

Chochua et al. (2016)


13.2% (138)


Healthy children < 5years born after mass distribution of Azithromycin for trachoma control. The study was conducted in 2014

Nasal carriage

Kilosa, Morogoro (Eastern zone)

Bloch et al. (2017)


22% (22)


100 nasal swabs from healthy individuals with no epidemiological connection were collected within urban and peri-urban Morogoro Municipalities

Nasal carriage

Morogoro (Eastern zone)

Katakweba et al. (2016)


13.2% (245)

23.3% (57)

Male and female of all age groups who were subjected to microbiology testing between January 2005 and December 2009 (Retrospective study)


Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Moyo et al. (2010)


28% (12)


Male and female sickle cell anaemic patients of all age groups seeking healthcare at MNH from January 2006 to December 2008


Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Makani et al. (2015)


In blood 36.5% (27), and in pus swabs 52.3% (132)


Neonates aged 3–26 days suspected with neonatal sepsis. Study duration October 2009–January 2010

Bacteremia and wound swabs

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Mhada et al. (2012)


12.2% (18)

44.4% (8)

100 participants (male and female aged 18–80 years) with clinical evidence of Surgical site infection. Duration from September 2011 to February 2012

Wound infections

Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone)

Manyahi et al. (2014)


71.4% (132)

0.8% (1)

Skin and soft tissue infections patients of all age groups

Wound infections

Bagamoyo (Eastern zone)

Kazimoto et al. (2018)


48.3% (131)


Asymptomatic otitis media (OM)-associated bacteria found in patients living with HIV

Ear colonization

Morogoro (Eastern zone)

Mwambete and Eulambius (2018)


Overall 28.4% (57/201) whereby the distribution was 56.3% (40/71) in blood samples, 20.4% (7/34) in pus samples, 23.1% (3/13) and 7.5% (6/80) in urine and sputum samples respectively


Patients of all age groups presenting different infections. The study was conducted between July and November 2019. About 201 clinical samples were included in the study

Bacteremia, wound infection, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection

Dar es Salaam (Eastern Zone) and Mwanza (Lake Zone)

Mikomangwa et al. (2020)


22.7% (5) in Blood culture

9.3% (8) in endocervical culture

53.8 (7/13)

197 qualified woman aged between 20–35 years admitted in the maternity wards between Dec. 2017 and April 2018 for postnatal care with clinical diagnosis of puerperal sepsis at MNH

Blood samples and Endocervical swabs

Eastern Zone

Kiponza et al. (2019)


The overall carriage rate of S. aureus was 21.0% (66). 47% (31) were from preclinical students while 53% (35) from clinical students

1.5% (1)

Healthy students (clinical and Pre clinical) aged 18 years and above. Study duration February to June 2013

Nasal carriage

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Okamo et al. (2016)


− 13.9% (129) in patients screened on admission

− 9.6% (29/301) aqured SA after their hospital stay

− 7.7% (11/143) in HCW

− 21.1% (12/57) in patients who developed SSI during their hospital stay

− 5.4% (7/129) in patients screened on admission

− 10.3% (3/29) acquired MRSA

− 1.4% (2/143) in HCW

− 3.5% (2/57) in SSI patients

930 patients were enrolled between Dec.2014 and Sep.2015 from two healthcare centres in Mwanza, Nasal swabs were collected on admission ad discharge, additionally wound swabs were collected in patients who had developed SSI during their hospital stay. Subsequently nasal swabs from HCW attending the enrolled patients were collected for analysis

Nasal carriage and wound infections

Mwanza (Lake Zone)

Moremi et al. (2019)



28% (9)

300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis


Mwanza (Lake zone)

Kayange et al. (2010)


14.8% (8)

50% (4)

402 malnourished children aged < five years

Study duration September 2012-–January 2013


Mwanza (Lake zone)

Ahmed et al. (2017)


17.0% (23)

34.7% (8)

950 children aged < 5 years with signs and symptoms of blood stream infections were enrolled from 4 Healthcare facilities including district, regional and referral hospitals with in Mwanza. Study was conducted between July 2016 and October 2017


Mwanza (Lake Zone)

Seni et al. (2019a)


13.7% (29)

79% (23)

Patients of all age groups and gender with lower limb ulcers seen at the surgical ward or outpatient department from November 2010 to April 2012

Wound infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Mbunda et al. (2012)



44.4% (8)

Patients of all age groups with chronic lower limb ulcers seen at the surgical ward. 300 wound infection were swabbed between November 2011 and February 2012

Wound infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Moremi et al. (2014)


28.6% (18)

19% (3)

65 patients of all age groups who underwent major surgery at BMC between July 2009 and June 2010

Surgical site wound infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Mawalla et al. (2011)


27.3% (6)

16.7% (1)

Woman aged 14–44 years who have developed surgical site infections after having undergone a caesarean Sections 345 woman were swabbed between October 2011 and February 2012

Surgical site wound infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Mpogoro et al. (2014)


29.2% (7)


162 patients of all age group and gender who underwent major limb amputations at BMC between March 2008 and February 2010. 24 of the participants had surgical site infections out of which different bacteria were recovered as the cause of infection

Surgical wound infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Chalya et al. (2012)




All patients of all age groups and gender presenting with animal-related injuries at the BMC between September 2007 and August 2011. Postoperative wound infection was the most commonest complication reported lead by S. aureus infections

Surgical site wound infections

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Gilyoma et al. (2013)


Overall prevalence 16.1 (25) out of which 28% (7) were isolated in HIV positive patients and 72%(18) in HIV negative patients


The study was done to compare magnitude of bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole/other antimicrobials among isolates from HIV infected patients on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and those not on prophylaxis and non-HIV patients attending BMC between January and October 2012

Urine and wound swabs

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Marwa et al. (2015)


18.2% (34)

41.2% (14)

301 patients aged > 1 year who presented with ear discharge for more than 6 weeks and tympanic membrane perforation at the ENT department between October 2013 and March 2014 were recruited into the study

Ear infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Mushi et al. (2016)


Overall 22.8% (100)

Blood 80% (80)

Pus swabs 18% (18)

Other infections 2% (2)

Only 78 were subjected to AST.34.6% (27) were MRSA

A total of 3330 microbiological culture results scripts representing non-repetitive specimens reported between June 2013 and May 2015 were retrieved and analysed for pathogens and their susceptibility patterns using STATA-11 software

Bacteremia, wound infection, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection

Mwanza (Lake zone)

Moremi et al. (2016)


8.7% (28)


1828 pregnant woman with significant bacteriuria seeking healthcare at different healthcare facilities within the north-western part of the country. The woman were recruited from dispensaries, health centres, district and regional/referral Hospitals

Urinary infection

Mwanza, Shinyanga, Tabora (Lake and Western Zones)

Seni et al. (2019b)




74 Patients aged between 8–20 years undergoing surgical treatment at BMC. Majority of the patients were male with history of abuse

Bone fragments collected during surgery

Mwanza (Lake Zone)

Silago et al. (2020)


55.3% (68)


Primary school children (aged 6–15 years) from 4 schools in Moshi municipality assessed/self-reported respiratory tract infection symptoms. The community-based study was conducted between January and March 2014

Nasal and Throat swabs

Moshi (Northern zone)

Ngocho et al. (2015)


66% (103) at 6 weeks, 36% (47) at 3 months and 24% (33) at 6 months. 38% (17) mothers were colonized by S. aureus parallel to their children


Children born to HIV positive mothers attending RCH clinics to establish prevalence and influence of nasal pharyngeal bacterial colonization on children. Nasal swabs from children were taken at 6 weeks (n = 156), 3 (n = 136) and 6 (n = 130) months consecutively. Mothers (45) of the infants were also swabbed at 3- and 6-month visits (Study duration 2005–2009

Nasal carriage

Moshi (Northern zone)

Kinabo et al. (2013)


16% (23)


Patients presenting with SSI, infected diabetic wounds, infected wounds due to trauma, and patients with other infected wounds admitted in surgical ward (study duration July 2013 to June 2014)

Wound infections

Moshi (Northern zone)

Kassam et al. (2017)


9.3% (35) of which 82.9 (29) were from wound infections, 11% (4) from blood samples and 6% (2) from sputum samples

Only 22 isolates were subjected to AST. 27.3% (6) were MRSA

People admitted to the medical or surgical wards at KCMC between 2013 and 2015. The study collected stool, sputum, blood and wound/pus samples from patients of all age groups to describe causative agents of different infections

Wound infection

Blood infection

Bronchial infection

Moshi (Northern zone)

Kumburu et al. (2017)


9.1% (6)


A total of 867 patients aged between 2–5 years with fever above 37 °C were enrolled between January and October 2013. 373 urine samples were collected and 66 tested positive for UTI. All S. aureus isolates were recovered from UTI patients

Urinary tract infection

Tanga (Korogwe) (Northern zone)

Mahende et al. (2014)


17% (17)


Children aged 0–12 years dismissed from the hospital with pneumonia diagnosis. 100 children were enrolled in the attempt to characterize aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia. (Study duration August 2014–April 2015)

Blood infection

Itigi (Central zone)

Caggiano et al. (2017)


11.3% (9)


Febrile adults and children seeking care at the Mnazi mmoja hospital between March 2012– April 2013

Blood infection


Onken et al. (2015)


6.3% (5)


Febrile patients seeking outpatient healthcare at 3 different district hospitals (Wete, Chake Chake, and Mkoani) on Pemba island between March 2009 to December 2010

Blood infection


Thriemer et al. (2012)

  1. NR Not reported