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Table 2 Human-related studies investigating S. aureus in different conditions and populations across Tanzania

From: Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Tanzania: a systematic review

S. no Prevalence S. aureus % (n) Prevalence MRSA % (n) Population Source of S. aureus isolates Location References
1 41.4% (157) 37.6% (59) Healthcare workers adults male and female from June 2016 to October 2016 Nasal carriage Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Joachim et al. (2018)
2 NR 11.8% in ICU patients and 2.1% in ICU HCW ICU patients (male and female of all age groups) and ICU HCW from October 2012 to March 2013 Nasal carriage Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Geofrey et al. (2015)
3 34.5% (89) in swabs collected on admission
20% (4) in swabs collected 48 h after admission
24.7% (22) from samples on admission, and 50% (2) in samples collected after 48 h Patients admitted to emergency or medical ward aged 5 and above Nasal carriage Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Joachim et al. (2017)
4 40% (114) 8.3% (12) Healthy children < 5years
From April 2010 to June 2010
Nasal carriage Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Moyo et al. (2014)
5 Overall 23.2% (223), whereby 26.2% (95), detected in children with acute respiratory infection and 21.4% (128) were detected in children without acute respiratory infection NR Children 2–10 years old aged with axillary temperature of ≤ 38 °C Dar es Salaam from April to August 2008 (DSM) and June to December 2008 (Ifakara) Nasal carriage Dar es Salaam and Morogoro (Eastern zone) Chochua et al. (2016)
6 13.2% (138) NR Healthy children < 5years born after mass distribution of Azithromycin for trachoma control. The study was conducted in 2014 Nasal carriage Kilosa, Morogoro (Eastern zone) Bloch et al. (2017)
7 22% (22) 0% 100 nasal swabs from healthy individuals with no epidemiological connection were collected within urban and peri-urban Morogoro Municipalities Nasal carriage Morogoro (Eastern zone) Katakweba et al. (2016)
8 13.2% (245) 23.3% (57) Male and female of all age groups who were subjected to microbiology testing between January 2005 and December 2009 (Retrospective study) Bacteremia Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Moyo et al. (2010)
9 28% (12) NR Male and female sickle cell anaemic patients of all age groups seeking healthcare at MNH from January 2006 to December 2008 Bacteremia Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Makani et al. (2015)
10 In blood 36.5% (27), and in pus swabs 52.3% (132) NR Neonates aged 3–26 days suspected with neonatal sepsis. Study duration October 2009–January 2010 Bacteremia and wound swabs Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Mhada et al. (2012)
11 12.2% (18) 44.4% (8) 100 participants (male and female aged 18–80 years) with clinical evidence of Surgical site infection. Duration from September 2011 to February 2012 Wound infections Dar es Salaam (Eastern zone) Manyahi et al. (2014)
12 71.4% (132) 0.8% (1) Skin and soft tissue infections patients of all age groups Wound infections Bagamoyo (Eastern zone) Kazimoto et al. (2018)
13 48.3% (131) NR Asymptomatic otitis media (OM)-associated bacteria found in patients living with HIV Ear colonization Morogoro (Eastern zone) Mwambete and Eulambius (2018)
14 Overall 28.4% (57/201) whereby the distribution was 56.3% (40/71) in blood samples, 20.4% (7/34) in pus samples, 23.1% (3/13) and 7.5% (6/80) in urine and sputum samples respectively NR Patients of all age groups presenting different infections. The study was conducted between July and November 2019. About 201 clinical samples were included in the study Bacteremia, wound infection, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection Dar es Salaam (Eastern Zone) and Mwanza (Lake Zone) Mikomangwa et al. (2020)
15 22.7% (5) in Blood culture
9.3% (8) in endocervical culture
53.8 (7/13) 197 qualified woman aged between 20–35 years admitted in the maternity wards between Dec. 2017 and April 2018 for postnatal care with clinical diagnosis of puerperal sepsis at MNH Blood samples and Endocervical swabs Eastern Zone Kiponza et al. (2019)
16 The overall carriage rate of S. aureus was 21.0% (66). 47% (31) were from preclinical students while 53% (35) from clinical students 1.5% (1) Healthy students (clinical and Pre clinical) aged 18 years and above. Study duration February to June 2013 Nasal carriage Mwanza (Lake zone) Okamo et al. (2016)
17 − 13.9% (129) in patients screened on admission
− 9.6% (29/301) aqured SA after their hospital stay
− 7.7% (11/143) in HCW
− 21.1% (12/57) in patients who developed SSI during their hospital stay
− 5.4% (7/129) in patients screened on admission
− 10.3% (3/29) acquired MRSA
− 1.4% (2/143) in HCW
− 3.5% (2/57) in SSI patients
930 patients were enrolled between Dec.2014 and Sep.2015 from two healthcare centres in Mwanza, Nasal swabs were collected on admission ad discharge, additionally wound swabs were collected in patients who had developed SSI during their hospital stay. Subsequently nasal swabs from HCW attending the enrolled patients were collected for analysis Nasal carriage and wound infections Mwanza (Lake Zone) Moremi et al. (2019)
18 21.5% 28% (9) 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis Bacteremia Mwanza (Lake zone) Kayange et al. (2010)
19 14.8% (8) 50% (4) 402 malnourished children aged < five years
Study duration September 2012-–January 2013
Bacteremia Mwanza (Lake zone) Ahmed et al. (2017)
20 17.0% (23) 34.7% (8) 950 children aged < 5 years with signs and symptoms of blood stream infections were enrolled from 4 Healthcare facilities including district, regional and referral hospitals with in Mwanza. Study was conducted between July 2016 and October 2017 Bacteremia Mwanza (Lake Zone) Seni et al. (2019a)
21 13.7% (29) 79% (23) Patients of all age groups and gender with lower limb ulcers seen at the surgical ward or outpatient department from November 2010 to April 2012 Wound infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Mbunda et al. (2012)
22 8.9%(18) 44.4% (8) Patients of all age groups with chronic lower limb ulcers seen at the surgical ward. 300 wound infection were swabbed between November 2011 and February 2012 Wound infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Moremi et al. (2014)
23 28.6% (18) 19% (3) 65 patients of all age groups who underwent major surgery at BMC between July 2009 and June 2010 Surgical site wound infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Mawalla et al. (2011)
24 27.3% (6) 16.7% (1) Woman aged 14–44 years who have developed surgical site infections after having undergone a caesarean Sections 345 woman were swabbed between October 2011 and February 2012 Surgical site wound infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Mpogoro et al. (2014)
25 29.2% (7) NR 162 patients of all age group and gender who underwent major limb amputations at BMC between March 2008 and February 2010. 24 of the participants had surgical site infections out of which different bacteria were recovered as the cause of infection Surgical wound infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Chalya et al. (2012)
26 59.3% NR All patients of all age groups and gender presenting with animal-related injuries at the BMC between September 2007 and August 2011. Postoperative wound infection was the most commonest complication reported lead by S. aureus infections Surgical site wound infections Mwanza (Lake zone) Gilyoma et al. (2013)
27 Overall prevalence 16.1 (25) out of which 28% (7) were isolated in HIV positive patients and 72%(18) in HIV negative patients NR The study was done to compare magnitude of bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole/other antimicrobials among isolates from HIV infected patients on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and those not on prophylaxis and non-HIV patients attending BMC between January and October 2012 Urine and wound swabs Mwanza (Lake zone) Marwa et al. (2015)
28 18.2% (34) 41.2% (14) 301 patients aged > 1 year who presented with ear discharge for more than 6 weeks and tympanic membrane perforation at the ENT department between October 2013 and March 2014 were recruited into the study Ear infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Mushi et al. (2016)
29 Overall 22.8% (100)
Blood 80% (80)
Pus swabs 18% (18)
Other infections 2% (2)
Only 78 were subjected to AST.34.6% (27) were MRSA A total of 3330 microbiological culture results scripts representing non-repetitive specimens reported between June 2013 and May 2015 were retrieved and analysed for pathogens and their susceptibility patterns using STATA-11 software Bacteremia, wound infection, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection Mwanza (Lake zone) Moremi et al. (2016)
30 8.7% (28) NR 1828 pregnant woman with significant bacteriuria seeking healthcare at different healthcare facilities within the north-western part of the country. The woman were recruited from dispensaries, health centres, district and regional/referral Hospitals Urinary infection Mwanza, Shinyanga, Tabora (Lake and Western Zones) Seni et al. (2019b)
31 69.25 28.5% 74 Patients aged between 8–20 years undergoing surgical treatment at BMC. Majority of the patients were male with history of abuse Bone fragments collected during surgery Mwanza (Lake Zone) Silago et al. (2020)
32 55.3% (68) NR Primary school children (aged 6–15 years) from 4 schools in Moshi municipality assessed/self-reported respiratory tract infection symptoms. The community-based study was conducted between January and March 2014 Nasal and Throat swabs Moshi (Northern zone) Ngocho et al. (2015)
33 66% (103) at 6 weeks, 36% (47) at 3 months and 24% (33) at 6 months. 38% (17) mothers were colonized by S. aureus parallel to their children NR Children born to HIV positive mothers attending RCH clinics to establish prevalence and influence of nasal pharyngeal bacterial colonization on children. Nasal swabs from children were taken at 6 weeks (n = 156), 3 (n = 136) and 6 (n = 130) months consecutively. Mothers (45) of the infants were also swabbed at 3- and 6-month visits (Study duration 2005–2009 Nasal carriage Moshi (Northern zone) Kinabo et al. (2013)
34 16% (23) NR Patients presenting with SSI, infected diabetic wounds, infected wounds due to trauma, and patients with other infected wounds admitted in surgical ward (study duration July 2013 to June 2014) Wound infections Moshi (Northern zone) Kassam et al. (2017)
35 9.3% (35) of which 82.9 (29) were from wound infections, 11% (4) from blood samples and 6% (2) from sputum samples Only 22 isolates were subjected to AST. 27.3% (6) were MRSA People admitted to the medical or surgical wards at KCMC between 2013 and 2015. The study collected stool, sputum, blood and wound/pus samples from patients of all age groups to describe causative agents of different infections Wound infection
Blood infection
Bronchial infection
Moshi (Northern zone) Kumburu et al. (2017)
36 9.1% (6) NR A total of 867 patients aged between 2–5 years with fever above 37 °C were enrolled between January and October 2013. 373 urine samples were collected and 66 tested positive for UTI. All S. aureus isolates were recovered from UTI patients Urinary tract infection Tanga (Korogwe) (Northern zone) Mahende et al. (2014)
37 17% (17) NR Children aged 0–12 years dismissed from the hospital with pneumonia diagnosis. 100 children were enrolled in the attempt to characterize aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia. (Study duration August 2014–April 2015) Blood infection Itigi (Central zone) Caggiano et al. (2017)
38 11.3% (9) 0% Febrile adults and children seeking care at the Mnazi mmoja hospital between March 2012– April 2013 Blood infection Zanzibar Onken et al. (2015)
39 6.3% (5) 0% Febrile patients seeking outpatient healthcare at 3 different district hospitals (Wete, Chake Chake, and Mkoani) on Pemba island between March 2009 to December 2010 Blood infection Zanzibar Thriemer et al. (2012)
  1. NR Not reported