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Table 1 Commonly used species of genus Fritillaria with their folk uses

From: Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of genus Fritillaria—a review

S. No. Species Local name Folk uses References
1 Fritillaria ebeiensis High antitussive and expectorant effects. A crude drug Ebeibeimu is prepared by treating its bulbs with lime and then bleached in sun, serves as a substitute drug for Beimu used for moisturizing lungs, clearing heat, treating cough, asthma and tracheitis like throat diseases Yu et al. (1985); Li et al. (1994), Wu et al. (1995)
2 Fritillaria cirrhosa Chuanbeimu Used to treat cough and asthma, Bulbs can be used as remedies for clearing the lungs of phlegm and cooling heat Bensky et al. (2004); Bensky and Gamble (1993); Li et al. (2006a, b, 2009), Konchar et al. (2011), Wang et al. (2011)
3 Fritillaria thunbergii Zhebeimu Used as antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant, to treat various diseases like cough, eliminating phlegm, relieving pain and anti-inflammatory disorders Qian and Xu (1985); Xiao et al. (1992); Zhou et al. (2003); Peng et al. (2012)
4 Fritillaria pallidiflora Yibeimu Cough treatment in TCM, used as antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic medicine Li et al. (1993); Zhou et al. (2003)
5 Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim Ping-Beimu Used to treat swollen throat and lung ailments in Chinese medicine Perry (1980)
6 Fritillaria maximowiczii Used to treat cough -
7 Fritillaria imperialis Treatment of various diseases like asthma, sore throat, bronchitis, cough, scrofula, haemoptysis, dysuria and gland tumour. Home remedy for haemorrhage, cough and phlegm, high fever, treatment of abscess, lack of milk, eye disease, asthma, rheumatism and act as antianxiety/ depression Bailey (1966), Perry (1980), Aydın et al. (2018), Abbaszadeh et al. (2019)
8 Fritillaria roylei Kakoli Ayurveda drug Ashtavarga is prepared, used for fever, burning sensation, phthisis and broncho-asthma Singh (2006), shaheen et al. (2014)
9 Fritillaria anhuiensis Used to treat asthma Shou et al. (2009)
10 Fritillaria unibracteata Used as antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant agents in TCM Liang (2004)
11 Fritillaria verticillata Cough remedies Da-Cheng et al. (2013)
12 Fritillaria tortifolia Folk medicine in Uygur medicine Hu et al. (2018)
13 Fritillaria delavayi Used antitussive and apophlegmatic Duan et al. (2012)