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Table 2 Concentrations, cow milk estimated daily intakes, target hazard quotients and target carcinogenic risks of U consumed by Zambian adults and children

From: Uranium contamination of milk from cattle in the uranium-mining area in Siavonga District of Zambia: a preliminary human health risk assessment

  Sample (n = 223) Concentration of U (µg/L) ± SD Estimated daily intake (µg/kg-bw/day) Target hazard quotient (THQ) Target carcinogenic risk (TCR)
Adults (64 years) Children (16 years) Adults (64 years) Children (16 years) Adults (64 years) Children (16 years)
Case (U mine area)a n = 100 0.83 ± 0.64 0.23 0.80 0.08 0.27 1.5E−11 5.2E−11
Control (about 67KM from U mine area)b n = 123 0.08 ± 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.03 1.3E−12 5.85E−12
Maximum drinking water limitc   30       
Maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI)    2.00d or 0.6e      
Risk safe limitf      1   1.0E−6 < TCR < 1.0E−4  
  1. aConcentrations ranged from 0.00 to 3.62
  2. bConcentrations ranged from 0.00 to 0.24
  3. cWHO (2011)
  4. dWHO (2008)
  5. eATSDR (1999)
  6. fUSEPA (1989, 2010)