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Table 4 Fennel growth, yield and fruit chemical composition influenced by the interaction of the biofertilizer and the herbicide treatments during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

From: Influence of herbicides under biofertilizer application on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) yield and quality with special reference to herbicide residues

Biofertilizer treatments * Herbicide treatments** Growth parameters Yield parameters Fruit chemical composition
Plant height F.W/plant (g) No. of branches/plant Umbels/plant Fruit yield/plant (g) Fruit yield (kg)/fed Oil% Oil Yield (ml/plant) Fruit Protein content (%)
1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd
F1 H1 94.17 95.13 155.88 162.8 4.84 5.30 16.5 22.34 16.59 21.84 414.7 546 0.99 0.99 0.16 0.22 10.86 10.90
H2 133.45 134.05 360.96 367.04 7.47 7.64 48.05 54.14 68.77 74.02 1719.2 1850.5 2.11 2.14 1.45 1.59 13.00 13.09
H3 88.5 91.8 229.28 236.2 5.83 6.12 15 20.5 22.38 27.63 559.5 690.7 1.08 1.08 0.24 0.30 13.63 13.69
H4 87.4 84.67 291.07 297.15 5. 50 5.53 18.5 23.92 30.71 35.96 767.7 898.9 1.07 1.07 0.33 0.39 12.75 12.79
H5 95.43 96.25 338.37 345.29 5.42 5.81 22.58 28 33.94 39.2 848.5 979.7 1.78 1.79 0.61 0.71 10.06 10.13
F2 H1 94.18 96.65 247.43 255.84 4.83 5.21 15.75 22.33 25.96 30.87 648.9 771.9 1.43 1.48 0.37 0.46 13.31 13.35
H2 134.86 137.05 416.9 425.31 8.00 8.5 57.31 63.39 71.18 78.01 1779.5 1950.3 2.41 2.55 1.71 1.98 13.56 13.56
H3 90.85 94.58 342.06 350.81 7.58 8.37 21.08 26.75 33.83 39.08 845.8 977 1.31 1.31 0.45 0.51 11.50 11.59
H4 89.58 92.08 335.95 337.03 6.75 7.04 19.08 24.67 37.96 42.37 948.9 1059.3 1.3 1.3 0.5 0.55 13.63 13.13
H5 96.68 97.5 391.36 394.95 6.83 6.72 38.25 43.5 47.46 52.88 1186.5 1321.9 1.42 1.48 0.68 0.78 12.94 12.96
F3 H1 80.33 80.75 117.34 123.25 4.75 4.97 9.58 14.92 14.14 20.13 353.4 503.4 0.98 0.99 0.14 0.20 9.42 9.46
H2 114.80 115.95 313.22 320.97 6.70 6.82 34.97 40.56 46.95 52.3 1173.7 1307 1.9 1.91 0.9 1.00 10.84 10.84
H3 72.9 73.83 158.94 165.03 4.33 4.61 13.67 19.42 9.77 15.1 244.2 377.5 0.89 0.86 0.09 0.13 11.25 11.40
H4 85.43 87.9 241.95 248.03 5.25 5.44 15.58 21.17 15.66 21 391.5 524.9 0.96 0.99 0.15 0.21 10.50 10.56
H5 84.98 86.33 207.9 211.51 5.25 5.50 17.75 23.33 20.45 25.93 511.3 648.3 1.65 1.67 0.34 0.43 10.00 10.08
LSD at 5% 8.15 6.56 12.97 15.14 0.87 0.71 4.47 4.33 2.43 2.80 60.76 70.17 0.08 0.10 0.05 0.06 0.66 0.64  
  1. *The three biofertilizer rates F1: 1:1:1, F2: 2:1:1 and F3: 1:1:2 (v/v/v) from the highly efficient bacterial strains of atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphorous dissolving and potassium solubilizing, respectively. **Herbicides treatments; (H1) untreated check without weed removal by hand as control treatment, (H2) untreated check with weed removal, (H3) pendimethalin at reduced rate; 812 g a.i. ha−1, as pre-emergence (after sowing and before irrigation), (H4) fluazifop-p butyl at the recommended rate; 450 g a.i. ha−1 as post-emergence (30 days after sowing) and (H5) a combination of sequential application of pendimethalin at the reduced rate + fluazifop butyl at the recommended