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Table 3 Fennel growth, yield parameters and fruit chemical composition affected by the herbicide treatments during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

From: Influence of herbicides under biofertilizer application on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) yield and quality with special reference to herbicide residues

Herbicide treatments* Growth parameters Yield parameters Fruit chemical composition
Plant height F.W of plant (g) No. of branches/plant Umbels/plant Fruit yield/plant (g) Fruit yield (kg)/fed Oil% Oil Yield (ml)/plant Fruit Protein content
1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd
H1 89.56 90.85 173.55 180.63 4.81 5.16 13.95 19.86 18.89 24.29 472.3 607.1 1.13 1.15 0.23 0.29 11.20 11.24
H2 127.71 129.01 363.69 371.11 7.39 7.65 46.78 52.69 62.30 68.11 1557.5 1702.6 2.14 2.20 1.35 1.52 12.47 12.50
H3 84.08 86.73 243.43 250.68 5.92 6.37 16.58 22.22 21.99 27.27 549.8 681.8 1.09 1.09 0.26 0.31 12.13 12.23
H4 87.47 88.21 289.65 294.07 5.83 6.00 17.72 23.25 28.11 33.11 702.7 827.7 1.11 1.12 0.33 0.38 12.10 12.16
H5 92.36 93.36 312.27 317.25 5.83 6.01 26.20 31.61 33.95 39.33 848.7 983.3 1.62 1.65 0.54 0.64 11.00 11.05
LSD at 5% 4.70 3.78 7.49 8.74 0.50 0.41 2.57 2.49 1.40 1.62 35.08 40.51 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.38 0.37
  1. *Herbicides treatments; (H1) untreated check without weed removal by hand as control treatment, (H2) untreated check with hand weed removal, (H3) pendimethalin at reduced rate; 812 g a.i. ha−1, as pre-emergence (after sowing and before irrigation), (H4) fluazifop-p butyl at the recommended rate; 450 g a.i. ha−1 as post-emergence (30 days after sowing) and (H5) a combination of sequential application of pendimethalin at the reduced rate + fluazifop butyl at the recommended rate