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Table 8 Occurrence of foliar necrosis during the study under experimental condition

From: Growth and yield performances of rice (Oryza sativa var. nerica) after exposure to biosynthesized nanoparticles

Treatments Pattern of necrosis Ferruginous Non-ferruginous
MNT (days) FNP (%) MNT (days) FNP (%)
AZ5% Appeared first like patches and then spread all over the leaf until entire leaf became necrotic 3 45 5 100
CA5% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 4 35 8 29
ZO5% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 2 38 4 33
VA5% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 4 35 7 50
MO5% Appeared first like patches and then spread all over the leaf until entire leaf became necrotic 6 40 11 28
AZ15% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 4 21 6 14
CA15% Appeared first like patches located within the middle of the leaves, and then spread all over the leaf until entire leaf became necrotic 3 29 4 23
ZO15% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 3 33 5 27
VA15% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 3 23 5 18
MO15% Appeared first like burnt patches as well as a couple of brown patches. Thereafter the entire leaf became necrotic 7 30 11 35
AZ30% Appeared first like patches located within the middle of the leaves, and then spread all over the leaf until entire leaf became necrotic 5 40 8 17
CA30% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 8 38 12 25
ZO30% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 5 41 7 29
VA30% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 2 56 4 40
MO30% Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 3 22 6 13
Control Began at the tip of the leaf and spread downwards until entire leaf became necrotic 4 34 6 20
p value Not applicable 0.169 0.512  < 0.001  < 0.001
  1. MNT Modal necrosis time, FNP Foliar necrosis percent, CA Carica papaya, VA Vernonia amygdalina, MO Moringa oleiofera, AZ Azadiracta indica ZO Hibiscus sabderiffa