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Table 3 GCMS profile of acetone extracts of oil-seed cakes of neem, madhuca, and simarouba with bioactivity

From: The antimicrobial and antioxidant property, GC–MS analysis of non-edible oil-seed cakes of neem, madhuca, and simarouba

Phytochemicals Oil-cakes and methods of extraction Abundancy (%) Bioactivity
Glycerine Madhuca (hot) 78.15 Antibacterial (Nalawade et al. 2015) Moisturizer to treat dry rough, itchy skin. Disease resistant in plant (Zhang et al. 2015)
  Neem (hot) 41.36  
  Simarouba (hot) 29.67  
  Madhuca (cold) 20.15  
Diacetone Simarouba (hot) 60.12 Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and anticancer (antiproliferative) (Güvensen et al. 2019)
  Simarouba (cold) 17.75  
  Madhuca (hot) 6.78  
  Neem (hot) 6.16  
  Madhuca (cold) 4.02  
α-D-Glucopyranoside, metyl Neem (cold) 21.65 Antibacterial (Kawsar et al. 2015)
Anticancer (Lyantagaye 2013)
cis-13-Eicosenoic acid Simarouba (cold) 21.01 Antifungal (Ahsan et al. 2017)
  Madhuca (cold) 3.72  
  Neem (cold) 0.47  
α-Monoacetin Neem (hot) 5.48 Antifungal agent ( industrialchem/plasticizer/MONOACETIN.htm)
  Simarouba (hot) 2.48  
  Madhuca (hot) 1.5  
  Simarouba (cold) 1.03  
Methyl gallate Neem (hot) 0.39 Antioxidant (Lubis et al. 2018), anti-HIV (Wang et al. 2014), antimicrobial (Ahmed et al. 2017), Anti-obesity (Roh and Jung 2012)
Vinyl sulfide Neem (hot) 1.09 Antioxidant (Ianiski et al. 2018)
5-Hydroxymethyl furfural Neem (hot) 2.68 Antioxidant and antiproliferative (Zhao et al. 2013) Treatment of sickle cell disease (
6-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3-phenylcoumarin Neem (hot) 0.24 Antioxidant (Matos et al. 2015)
Angelic acid Neem (hot) 1.4 Antioxidant (Ku 2018)
Strong pain-relieving and spasmolytic (Weiss 2001) sedative and tonic against nervous problem, fever, colic, heartburn, loss of appetite, gout, headache and other health disturbances (Small 2006)
Vanillic acid Neem (hot) 0.63 Antioxidant and antimicrobial (Kumar et al 2011; Yemis et al. 2011)
Binapacryl Neem (cold) 0.26 Fungicide and miticide (Ward 1964)
Indole Neem (cold) 1.94 Antidepressant, antioxidant, antimicrobial (Hamid et al. 2017)
2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol Simarouba (cold) 0.48  
  Neem (cold) 0.45 Antifungal activity (Dharni et al. 2014), antibacterial activity (Dehpour et al. 2012; Aissaoui et al 2019), antioxidant and anticancer (Choi et al. 2013), herbicidal (Halim et al. 2017)
  Madhuca (cold) 0.13  
Thymol Madhuca (cold) 0.21 Antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiseptic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidaemia (Marchese et al. 2016)
7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-ol acetate Madhuca (cold) 0.52 Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective (Hameed et al. 2015)
Chloramben, methyl ester Madhuca (cold) 0.12 Herbicide (Wehtje et al. 1992)
Nonanal Simarouba (cold) 0.99 Antibacterial (Bisignano et al. 2001), Antifungal (Zhang et al. 2017) Antidiarrheal (Miguel et al. 2008)
Xylitol Simarouba (cold) 0.03 Antioxidant (Kang et al. 2007), Antibacterial (Tapiainen et al. 2001), Sweetener in oral hygiene preparations (Nayak et al. 2014)
Trans-2-Decenal Simarouba (cold) 1.36 Antimicrobial and insecticidal Nematicidal (Caboni et al. 2012)
Mevalolactone Simarouba (hot) 1.38 Antibacterial (Scopel et al. 2014) Phytotoxic (Varejão and Demuner 2013)
Pentadecanoic acid Neem (cold) 1.18 Antioxidant (Al-Douri and Shakya 2019)
Benzothiazole, 2-(2-hydroxyethylthio) Neem (cold) 4.91 Anthelmintic activity (Lucie et al. 2013)
Heptadecanoic acid Neem (cold) 1.07 Antioxidant (Ponnamma and Manjunath 2012)
Cyclic octaatomic sulfur Neem (cold) 0.26 Antioxidant, antimicrobial (Ojinnaka et al. 2015);treatment of dandruff, acne, hay fever, common cold, scaly and red skin patches (
Oleic Acid Simarouba (cold) 2.69 Protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance (Perdomo et al. 2015), maintain a balance of body weight, reduce serum blood cholesterol and pressure (Singh and Singh 1991)
  Madhuca (hot) 1.22  
  Madhuca (cold) 0.75  
Stearic acid Madhuca (cold) 3.15 Antimicrobial activity, antidepressant activity (Jubie et al. 2012) pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, ointments (Larranaga 2016)
  Simarouba (cold) 0.89  
  Madhuca (hot) 0.89  
Linoleic acid Madhuca (cold) 3.02 Antibacterial (Zheng et al. 2005) Antifungal and antioxidant (Pinto et al. 2017)
2-Phenyl-4-anilino-6[1H]-pyrimidinone Madhuca (cold) 3.54 Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial (Awadallah et al. 2013)
Canthin-6-one Simarouba (cold) 2.02 Antimicrobial (Gazoni et al. 2018) Bacteriostatic (Jiang and Zhou 2008), Anti- HIV, anticancer (Ammirante et al. 2006)
Methyl 13-methyltetradecanoate Neem (cold) 0.25 Anticancerous (
Palmitic acid, methyl ester Madhuca (cold) 5.77 Vasodilator and neuroprotection in cardiac arrest (Lee et al. 2018)
Linoleic acid, methyl ester Madhuca (cold) 7.28 Antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial (Pinto et al. 2017)
Elaidic acid, methyl ester Madhuca (cold) 5.68 Synthesis of Cephalosporin antibiotics (Kirk-Orthmer 1991)
Dibutyl phthalate Neem (cold) 4.07 Antibacterial (Khatiwora et al. 2012) phytotoxic (Millar and Hannay 1986)
  Simarouba (cold) 4.74  
Diisooctyl phthalate Neem (cold) 9.41 Antimicrobial (Zellagui et al. 2012)
  Madhuca (cold) 3.96  
  Madhuca (hot) 1.19  
  Simarouba (cold) 4.13