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Table 7 Maximum acceptable concentration for drinking water according to the WHO (2004) and Egyptian Standard (Eg. St. 2007), and the related measurements in the studied area

From: GIS-based assessment of groundwater quality and suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes in the outlet and central parts of Wadi El-Assiuti, Assiut Governorate, Egypt

Constituent Unit Maximum acceptable concentration (WHO 2004) Egyptian maximum permissible limits (EHCW 2007) Concentration range for the studied samples
pH   6.5–8.5 6.5–8.5 6.45–9.45
Electric conductivity (EC) µmhos/cm 1500 340–8000
Total dissolved solids (TDS) ppm 1000 1000 1972–6217
Total hardness (TH) mg/l (CaCO3) 500 500 34–960
Sodium (Na) ppm 200 200 49.30–1950
Calcium (Ca) ppm 200 200 15.23–611.52
Magnesium (Mg++) ppm 150 150 4.20–532.26
Potassium (K+) ppm 10 0.39–320.80
Chloride (Cl) ppm 250 250 40.40–3200
Sulfate (SO4) ppm 400 72–580
Bicarbonate (HCO3) ppm 200 250 6.10–628
Nickel (Ni) ppm 0.02 0.02 0.01–0.6
Lead (Pb) ppm 0.01 0.01 0.05
Iron (Fe) ppm 0.3 0.3 0.05–0.46
Manganese (Mn) ppm 0.4 0.4 0.11–0.221