Skip to main content

Table 1 Changes in physico-chemical properties of solid substrates treated with ligninolytic fungi during solid-state fermentation in different time intervals

From: Biodegradation potential of indigenous litter dwelling ligninolytic fungi on agricultural wastes

  Time interval (day) pH (1–14) Total OM (mg/g) Total OC (mg/g) Total N (mg/g) Crude protein (mg/g) Total P (mg/g) Total K (mg/g)
Areca husk         
 Control   6.2 ± 0.115a 65.1 ± 1.66a 37.7 ± 0.96a 0.58 ± 0.014g 3.6 ± 0.08g 0.49 ± 0.034i 0.68 ± 0.09e
  M. circinelloides GL1 20 6.0 ± 0.115ab 62.8 ± 1.14a 36.4 ± 0.66a 0.72 ± 0.020f 4.4 ± 0.12f 0.67 ± 0.020gh 1.20 ± 0.11e
40 5.8 ± 0.173abc 55.9 ± 1.49bc 32.4 ± 0.86bc 0.89 ± 0.020e 5.5 ± 0.12e 0.93 ± 0.013e 2.85 ± 0.13d
60 5.6 ± 0.115bcd 45.0 ± 1.15ef 26.1 ± 0.66ef 0.93 ± 0.026e 5.8 ± 0.16e 1.07 ± 0.020d 4.75 ± 0.14c
80 5.4 ± 0.057cde 31.0 ± 0.86g 17.9 ± 0.50g 1.13 ± 0.013d 7.0 ± 0.08d 1.23 ± 0.017c 5.74 ± 0.15b
100 5.2 ± 0.115def 27.5 ± 1.60g 15.9 ± 0.93g 1.38 ± 0.011b 8.6 ± 0.07b 1.38 ± 0.044b 6.09 ± 0.23b
120 5.0 ± 0.173efg 21.5 ± 1.04h 12.4 ± 0.60h 1.63 ± 0.023a 10.1 ± 0.14a 1.50 ± 0.031a 6.85 ± 0.18a
  F. verticillioides GL5 20 5.8 ± 0.115abc 63.2 ± 1.60a 36.6 ± 0.93a 0.69 ± 0.02f 4.3 ± 0.13f 0.56 ± 0.026hi 0.83 ± 0.12e
40 5.6 ± 0.057bcd 56.8 ± 0.62b 32.9 ± 0.36b 0.74 ± 0.017f 4.6 ± 0.10f 0.68 ± 0.043g 1.18 ± 0.15e
60 5.4 ± 0.100cde 50.8 ± 1.66cd 29.4 ± 0.96cd 0.88 ± 0.017e 5.4 ± 0.10e 0.80 ± 0.026f 2.78 ± 0.17d
80 5.1 ± 0.115def 46.7 ± 1.15de 27.0 ± 0.66de 0.96 ± 0.023e 6.0 ± 0.14e 0.94 ± 0.020e 4.60 ± 0.10c
100 4.8 ± 0.173fg 43.0 ± 1.60ef 24.9 ± 0.93ef 1.25 ± 0.028c 7.8 ± 0.17c 1.08 ± 0.017d 4.99 ± 0.22c
120 4.5 ± 0.115g 39.5 ± 0.86f 22.9 ± 0.50f 1.36 ± 0.023b 8.5 ± 0.14b 1.21 ± 0.026c 5.94 ± 0.18b
Coffee husk         
 Control   5.8 ± 0.115a 72.7 ± 1.87a 42.1 ± 1.08a 0.59 ± 0.014i 3.7 ± 0.09i 0.52 ± 0.037h 0.93 ± 0.04e
  M. circinelloides GL1 20 5.5 ± 0.208ab 68.7 ± 2.22a 39.8 ± 1.29a 0.72 ± 0.018gh 4.5 ± 0.11gh 0.70 ± 0.041fg 1.14 ± 0.06de
40 5.3 ± 0.115abc 54.9 ± 1.26bc 31.8 ± 0.72bc 0.85 ± 0.020fg 5.3 ± 0.12fg 0.82 ± 0.049ef 1.64 ± 0.15cd
60 5.0 ± 0.057bcd 41.6 ± 1.71ef 24.1 ± 0.99ef 1.08 ± 0.037e 6.7 ± 0.23e 0.97 ± 0.043de 1.86 ± 0.13c
80 5.0 ± 0.152bcd 30.9 ± 1.70g 17.9 ± 0.98g 1.45 ± 0.026c 9.1 ± 0.16c 1.16 ± 0.026bc 2.18 ± 0.10c
100 4.6 ± 0.100de 24.5 ± 1.35h 14.2 ± 0.78h 1.72 ± 0.027b 10.7 ± 0.17b 1.28 ± 0.044b 2.85 ± 0.15b
120 4.2 ± 0.115e 18.3 ± 1.32h 10.6 ± 0.76i 1.92 ± 0.023a 12.0 ± 0.14a 1.49 ± 0.031a 3.55 ± 0.18a
  F. verticillioides GL5 20 5.4 ± 0.173abc 69.3 ± 1.48a 40.2 ± 0.85a 0.68 ± 0.046hi 4.2 ± 0.28hi 0.62 ± 0.026gh 1.10 ± 0.08de
40 5.1 ± 0.100bcd 59.2 ± 1.54b 34.3 ± 0.89b 0.78 ± 0.017gh 4.9 ± 0.10gh 0.70 ± 0.026fg 1.14 ± 0.11de
60 4.9 ± 0.057cd 54.4 ± 1.28bc 31.5 ± 0.74bc 0.92 ± 0.015f 5.7 ± 0.09f 0.83 ± 0.020ef 1.67 ± 0.14cd
80 4.7 ± 0.100de 50.4 ± 1.21cd 29.2 ± 0.70cd 1.28 ± 0.043d 8.0 ± 0.27d 0.97 ± 0.029de 1.82 ± 0.14c
100 4.6 ± 0.115de 45.3 ± 1.66de 26.3 ± 0.96de 1.33 ± 0.040cd 8.3 ± 0.25cd 1.07 ± 0.034cd 2.06 ± 0.20c
120 4.3 ± 0.057e 37.5 ± 0.93f 21.7 ± 0.54f 1.45 ± 0.028c 9.0 ± 0.17c 1.17 ± 0.027bc 2.95 ± 0.16b
Paddy straw         
 Control   6.5 ± 0.115a 68.2 ± 1.12a 39.5 ± 0.65a 0.56 ± 0.023i 3.5 ± 0.14h 0.50 ± 0.037h 0.88 ± 0.08e
  M. circinelloides GL1 20 6.2 ± 0.152ab 61.3 ± 1.18b 35.5 ± 0.68b 0.68 ± 0.026fg 4.2 ± 0.16fg 0.69 ± 0.026fg 1.36 ± 0.15e
40 6.0 ± 0.115abc 53.8 ± 1.09c 31.2 ± 0.63c 0.83 ± 0.029e 5.2 ± 0.18e 0.84 ± 0.023de 2.62 ± 0.15d
60 5.8 ± 0.057bcd 48.3 ± 1.72c 28.0 ± 0.99c 1.04 ± 0.037cd 6.4 ± 0.23cd 0.91 ± 0.035cd 3.24 ± 0.14cd
80 5.4 ± 0.173de 35.8 ± 1.41d 20.7 ± 0.82d 1.11 ± 0.020bc 6.9 ± 0.12bc 1.00 ± 0.023bc 3.98 ± 0.26bc
100 5.1 ± 0.100ef 26.0 ± 1.61e 15.0 ± 0.93e 1.19 ± 0.034ab 7.4 ± 0.21ab 1.10 ± 0.029ab 4.66 ± 0.17ab
120 4.4 ± 0.115g 16.5 ± 1.32e 9.5 ± 0.76f 1.25 ± 0.028a 7.8 ± 0.17a 1.21 ± 0.028a 5.30 ± 0.17a
  F. verticillioides GL5 20 6.3 ± 0.115ab 66.5 ± 0.85ab 38.5 ± 0.49ab 0.63 ± 0.026gh 3.9 ± 0.16gh 0.60 ± 0.029gh 1.04 ± 0.18e
40 6.1 ± 0.057ab 63.5 ± 1.65ab 36.8 ± 0.95ab 0.76 ± 0.020ef 4.7 ± 0.12ef 0.76 ± 0.023ef 1.26 ± 0.19e
60 5.9 ± 0.100bcd 61.2 ± 1.58b 35.5 ± 0.92b 0.83 ± 0.034e 5.2 ± 0.21e 0.85 ± 0.028de 2.52 ± 0.22d
80 5.5 ± 0.115cde 53.8 ± 1.09c 31.2 ± 0.63c 0.98 ± 0.034d 6.1 ± 0.21d 0.91 ± 0.040cd 3.15 ± 0.35cd
100 5.2 ± 0.115ef 48.3 ± 1.41c 28.0 ± 0.82c 1.05 ± 0.017cd 6.5 ± 0.10cd 1.03 ± 0.040bc 3.96 ± 0.31bc
120 4.8 ± 0.173fg 35.8 ± 1.25d 20.8 ± 0.72d 1.18 ± 0.015ab 7.3 ± 0.09ab 1.09 ± 0.034ab 5.21 ± 0.17a
  1. ‘ ± ’ indicates standard error (SE) calculated by using triplicates
  2. Values (mean of triplicates) with different letters within the same vertical column indicate the significant difference at p ≤ 0.05
  3. A italicized cell represents the maximum value
  4. Total OM total organic matter, Total OC total organic carbon, Total N total nitrogen, Total P total phosphorus, Total K total potassium