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Table 3 The sublethal effects of emamectin benzoate on S. littoralis population parameters

From: Sublethal effects of emamectin benzoate on life table parameters of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

  Untreated LC5 LC15
Net reproductive rate (R0) (offspring/individual) 958.74 ± 169.19a 368.235 ± 73.300b 264.90 ± 66.103b
Intrinsic rate of increase (r) (d−1) 0.208 ± 0.006a 0.174 ± 0.006b 0.161 ± 0.007b
Finite rate of increase (λ) (d−1) 1.231 ± 0.006a 1.190 ± 0.007b 1.175 ± 0.009b
Mean generation time T (d) 32.99 ± 0.178a 33.83 ± 0.205b 34.57 ± 0.216c
The doubling time (DT) 3.33 3.97 4.3
Fecundity (eggs/female) 2038.12 ± 194.216a 1043.33 ± 62.977b 965 ± 103.09b
Gross reproductive rate (GRR) 1197.05 ± 193.06a 514.13 ± 91.52b 451.34 ± 100.32b
Relative fitness 1 0.38 0.28
  1. Means in the same row followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05)
  2. Finite rate of increase (λ) (d−1), the number of females per female per day
  3. Gross reproductive rate (GRR), defines as total lifetime reproduction in the absence of mortality