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Table 1 The proximate chemical composition for different agricultural wastes used as a substrate

From: Optimization and immobilization of amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus using pomegranate peel waste

Different agricultural wastes Proximate chemical composition Reference
Wheat bran Moisture 8.1–12.7%, protein 9.6–18.6%, Ash 3.9-8.1%, dietary fiber 33.4–63%, total carbohydrate 60–75%, and starch 9.1–38.9%. (Curti et al. 2013)
Rice straw Lignin 13.3%, cellulose 31.1%, hemicelluloses 22.3%; Asha and other 33.3% (Barmina et al. 2013)
Soy bean Sugar 6%, oil 20%, crude protein 37%, soluble fiber 12%, humidity 9%, ashes 5%, and neutral detergent fiber 11% (Karr-Lilienthal et al. 2006)
Fresh pomegranate peel powder Moisture 7.27%, protein 3.76%, ash 4.32%, crude fiber 17.31%, fat 0.85%, total phenol content 18.75 mg/g, antioxidant activity 59.64%, water activity 0.28, and carbohydrate 66.51%. (Ranjitha et al. 2018)
Fresh banana peel powder Proteins 0.9%, lipids 1.7%, carbohydrates 59.1% crude fiber 31.7%, water 6 and 8%, minerals: potassium 0.078%, manganese 0.076%, calcium 0.019%, sodium is 0.024%, and iron 0.00061%. (Anhwange et al. 2009)
Fresh orange peel powder Ash 4.2%, protein 7.8%, starch 4.5%, fat 2.3%: lignin 1.0%, cellulose 11.1%, and hemicelluloses 12.6%, pectin 51.1%, and moisture 2.9%. (Hiri et al. 2015)
Potato peel powder Moisture 11.2%, ash 7.56%, sugar 3.45%, carbohydrate 64.47%, and protein 13.52%. Arapoglou et al. 2010)