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Table 5 Alkaline water retention capacity of pan bread as affected by addition of nano and fermented nano materials (%)

From: Pan bread quality as affected by some nano and fermented-nano food industries by-products

Sample Storage time (h)
3 24 48 72
Pan bread made from wheat flours (control samples)
72% extraction 325.81A ± 0.28 291.58A ± 0.61 265.63A ± 0.80 236.91A ± 1.05
82% extraction 291.51B ± 0.68 276.32B ± 0.46 254.25B ± 0.62 228.74B ± 0.39
100% extraction 266.12D ± 0.47 244.57C ± 0.35 227.63E ± 0.72 207.95E ± 0.46
Pan bread made from wheat flour 72% incorporated with
Nano-wheat bran (%)
5 286.62B ± 0.64 246.33B ± 1.68 241.39C ± 1.00 234.03A ± 1.07
15 251.52G ± 0.79 246.42BC ± 0.44 236.33D ± 1.06 228.34B ± 0.27
25 230.76K ± 0.87 224.69G ± 1.13 219.05GH ± 1.58 210.04E ± 0.42
Nano-wheat germ (%)
5 257.93EF ± 1.06 255.81B ± 0.56 252.55B ± 0.68 233.81A ± 1.88
15 246.99H ± 0.74 246.5BC ± 0.81 242.61C ± 0.45 226.60B ± 1.04
25 240.57I ± 0.54 230.21EFG ± 0.43 219.56GH ± 1.08 210.16E ± 0.92
Fermented nano-rice bran (%)
5 229.05K ± 1.07 226.60FG ± 0.86 220.92G ± 0.30 216.39D ± 0.72
15 224.70L ± 0.52 222.25G ± 0.4 216.88H ± 1.03 211.78E ± 1.19
25 222.34L ± 0.38 209.19H ± 11.45 189.91I ± 0.54 163.55G ± 2.17
Fermented nano-carrot pomace (%)
5 262.13D ± 1.24 249.0BC ± 0.81 229.30E ± 1.30 221.04C ± 1.61
15 255.78F ± 0.69 245.28C ± 0.45 226.71 E ± 0.42 209.63E ± 1.10
25 244.52H ± 0.89 239.39CD ± 0.65 224.68F ± 0.78 201.54F ± 1.09
Fermented nano-pomegranate peel (%)
5 274.17C ± 1.80 244.54CD ± 108 237.65D ± 0.90 227.61B ± 1.00
15 259.54DE ± 1.08 235.39DEF ± 1.29 227.94E ± 0.74 219.35CD ± 0.80
25 237.55J ± 1.20 229.82EFG ± 0.65 221.19G ± 1.66 212.47E ± 0.73
  1. Values in the same column followed by different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)