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Table 5 Interaction of three factors (Plant*Predator*Treatment) with respect to the adult predators’ abundance

From: Do the diversity of plants and sulphur application influence the population fluctuation of insect predator?

Plant*Predator*TreatmentPost treatment intervals (hours)
0 h2 h12 h24 h48 h72 h168 h
Mean number of each predator ± SE
OkraCoccinellaControl11.00 ± 2.55a8.00 ± 1.23def22.25 ± 2.66 c21.25 ± 2.32b19.75 ± 1.44b18.50 ± 1.19c17.75 ± 2.90c
Sulphur treated14.75 ± 1.80a3.25 ± 1.89hij8.25 ± 1.44 e7.00 ± 1.08fg9.50 ± 1.19def11.25 ± 1.11ef12.75 ± 3.75defg
Untreated second area9.75 ± 2.10a7.75 ± 1.03defg12.75 ± 2.66 d13.25 ± 1.25cd16.50 ± 3.66bc15.00 ± 2.80d15.75 ± 1.44cd
ChrysoperlaControl3.75 ± 0.25a5.00 ± 0.91fgh5.25 ± 0.63 fg3.25 ± 0.25ghi4.75 ± 0.48gh6.50 ± 0.65g7.00 ± 0.41hi
Sulphur treated4.50 ± 0.29a0.25 ± 0.25j0.75 ± 0.25 h3.00 ± 0.41hi5.00 ± 0.41fgh6.25 ± 0.48g8.75 ± 0.48hi
Untreated second area4.25 ± 0.25a3.00 ± 0.71hij3.75 ± 0.48 g4.50 ± 0.65ghi5.75 ± 0.85efgh4.75 ± 0.48gh7.00 ± 0.41hi
StethorusControl6.52 ± 1.26a4.50 ± 1.32ghi8.75 ± 1.25e8.75 ± 2.43ef8.25 ± 1.32efg7.00 ± 1.22g8.75 ± 1.49ghi
Sulphur treated6.75 ± 1.25a1.25 ± 0.75ij0.25 ± 0.25h0.75 ± 0.25i2.50 ± 0.87h1.25 ± 0.25i2.50 ± 0.87j
Untreated second area5.50 ± 1.44a4.25 ± 1.32hi6.25 ± 0.75efg4.25 ± 1.18ghi7.25 ± 1.44efg6.75 ± 1.49 g7.00 ± 0.71hi
MarrowCoccinellaControl13.75 ± 1.80a11.00 ± 1.29d15.00 ± 2.65d17.00 ± 1.29c13.50 ± 2.50cd14.00 ± 0.41de13.50 ± 1.55def
Sulphur treated16.00 ± 3.37a6.25 ± 1.80efgh6.75 ± 0.85ef6.25 ± 1.32fgh10.00 ± 1.16de12.25 ± 0.85de15.25 ± 1.84cde
Untreated second area16.25 ± 0.85a25.50 ± 1.44b27.75 ± 0.75b30.00 ± 2.58a28.25 ± 3.92a22.75 ± 2.56b23.75 ± 2.39b
ChrysoperlaControl19.25 ± 0.95a21.50 ± 1.04c28.00 ± 0.58b30.00 ± 1.08a28.75 ± 0.85a26.25 ± 0.85a30.25 ± 0.85a
Sulphur treated18.00 ± 0.71a8.50 ± 1.04de7.50 ± 0.65ef12.50 ± 1.32de15.50 ± 1.04bc13.50 ± 0.65de11.50 ± 0.50efg
Untreated second area19.00 ± 1.29a30.00 ± 1.08a31.00 ± 1.08a33.00 ± 1.08a19.75 ± 0.85b15.50 ± 1.08d11.00 ± 0.91fgh
StethorusControl6.50 ± 2.22a4.50 ± 1.32ghi8.75 ± 1.25e7.00 ± 1.58fg8.25 ± 1.32efg7.25 ± 1.11g7.00 ± 1.22hi
Sulphur treated6.75 ± 2.06a1.25 ± 0.75ij0.00 ± 0.00h0.75 ± 0.25i2.25 ± 0.85h2.00 ± 0.41hi2.50 ± 0.87j
Untreated second area4.75 ± 0.48a4.00 ± 0.71hi6.25 ± 0.75efg4.25 ± 1.81ghi7.25 ± 1.44efg8.00 ± 0.82fg6.75 ± 0.63i
F value0.668NS10.605**32.231**16.664**10.609**13.646**18.152**
LSD at 5%3.4372.8423.8884.6813.2834.239
P value0.00000.00000.00000.00000.00000.0000
  1. Means in a column followed with the same letter(s) are not significantly different (P at 5%)
  2. **Highly significant
  3. NSInsignificant