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Table 3 Comparison between the studied diabetic children (8–12 years) and adolescents (13–18 years) with their corresponding control groups concerning their child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (GCS) scores

From: Health-related quality of life in a group of Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: relationship to microvascular complications

Functioning scale No. of items Diabetic children (8–12  years) n = 24 Healthy children (8–12 years) n = 28 Independent t test Diabetic adolescents (13–18 years) n = 36 Healthy adolescents (13–18 years) n = 32 Independent t test
t p value t p value
PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (child self-report)
 Total score 23 77.05 ± 14.58 79.32 ± 11.15 0.638 0.527 64.37 ± 14.54 74.74 ± 13.34 3.051 0.003**
40.22–100 55.43–100 35.87–92.39 45.66–92.39
 Physical health 8 80.07 ± 15.01 82.6 ± 11.01 0.698 0.488 66.64 ± 15.56 80.20 ± 13.63 3.800 0.001**
40.63–100 54.17–100 37.5–96.88 43.75–100
 Emotional functioning 5 70.31 ± 16.14 74.67 ± 19.41 0.872 0.388 56.08 ± 16.71 65.07 ± 19.48 2.048 0.045*
35–100 35–100 25–85 33.33–100
 Social functioning 5 81.35 ± 13.89 81.8 ± 16.42 0.105 0.917 68.06 ± 15.70 77.01 ± 16.84 2.267 0. 027*
45–100 50–100 35–90 45–100
 School functioning 5 74.48 ± 15.78 76.47 ± 14.08 0.482 0.632 65.52 ± 13.67 75.89 ± 16.16 2.864 0. 006**
40–100 50–100 35–95 40–100
 Psychosocial health 15 75.54 ± 14.89 77.64 ± 12.84 0.547 0.587 63.27 ± 14.48 72.67 ± 13.88 2.725 0. 008**
40–100 45–100 35–90 44.23–94.23
PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (parent proxy-report)
 Total score 23 73.45 ± 15.25 77.75 ± 10.82 1.185 0.242 61.71 ± 14.71 71.97 ± 11.96 3.133 0.003**
39.13–98.91 52.38–97.83 32.61–86.96 41.3–93.48
 Physical health 8 76.63 ± 16.14 82.23 ± 12.14 1.427 0.160 64.94 ± 16.76 76.51 ± 15.84 2.915 0.005**
37.5–100 50–100 34.38–93.75 37.5–96.88
 Emotional functioning 5 67.92 ± 17.87 70.45 ± 17.13 0.519 0.606 52.19 ± 16.73 62.58 ± 16.75 2.555 0.013*
30–100 35–95 20–80 25–100
 Social functioning 5 77.03 ± 12.85 82.5 ± 12.95 1.524 0.134 65.17 ± 15.17 74.71 ± 15.29 2.578 0.012*
50–100 60–100 30–90 40–100
 School functioning 5 70.94 ± 15.86 73.57 ± 14.33 0.629 0. 532 62.88 ± 13.04 72.25 ± 14.43 2.813 0.006**
35–100 40–100 30–90 43.75–100
 Psychosocial health 15 71.96 ± 15.17 75.4 ± 11.35 0.932 0.356 60.08 ± 14.21 69.98 ± 12.39 3.046 0.003**
40–98.33 50–98.33 31.67–83.33 36.67–91.67
  1. *Significant (p < 0.05). **Highly significant (p < 0.01)