Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of biological pretreatment with other pretreatment methods

From: Microbial delignification and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to enhance biofuel production: an overview and future prospect

Pretreatment type Merits or advantages Common chemicals/solvents used Constraints/limitation References
Biological Low use of energy and chemicals
Able to degrade hemicellulose and lignin
Environmentally sound
Have lower hydrolysis rate Dunlop 2011; Monavari et al. 2009; Dionisi et al. 2014
Organosolv Able to depolymerize lignin and hemicelluloses Acetone, formic acid, methanol, ethylene glycol, butanol, ethanol ➢ Needs solvent recycling and draining
➢ Expensive
➢ Inhibitors are produced
Monavari et al. 2009
Steam explosion Able to depolymerize lignin and hemicelluloses Steam ➢ Xylan loss
➢ Partial depolymerization of components
➢ Inhibitors are produced
Galbe and Zacchi 2002;Wyman et al. 2005
Alkali treatment ➢ Able to take out lignin and hemicelluloses
➢ Increases the accessibility of the surface
Sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonia ➢ Washing is required
➢ Salt formation causing fouling problems
Alexandropoulou et al. 2017; Narra et al. 2017
Ozonolysis ➢ Able to depolymerize lignin
➢ No inhibitory production
Ozone ➢ High amount of ozone is required
➢ Expensive
Sun and Cheng 2002
Ammonium fiber explosion ➢ Increases the accessibility of the surface
➢ Able to depolymerize lignin and hemicellulose
Ammonia, water ➢ Efficient problem
➢ Inhibitors are produced
Gupta and Lee 2009
Acid treatment ➢ Able to hydrolyze hemicellulose
➢ Modifies lignin structure
Sulfuric acid, nitric acid ➢ Expensive
➢ Corrosive to equipment
➢ Inhibitors are produced
Pu et al. 2013; Mohapatra et al. 2017