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Table 1 Effect of soil application with Trichoderma spp. and seed coating with thiophanate-methyl employed either alone or in combination on damping-off, root rot/wilt, and survival dry bean plants grown in soil artificially infested with each of Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse conditions

From: Field application of Trichoderma spp. combined with thiophanate-methyl for controlling Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in dry bean

Treatment Fusarium solani
Damping-off (%) Root rot (%) Survival plants (%)
Pre-emergence Post-emergence
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. harzianum 6.7 e 7.1 e 7.1 e 85.8 b
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. viride 6.7 e 7.1 e 7.1 e 85.8 b
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. virens 6.7 e 0.0 f 7.1 e 92.9 a
T. harzianum 20.0 c 8.3 c 8.3 c 83.4 d
T. viride 13.3 d 7.7 d 7.7 d 84.6 c
T. virens 20.0 c 8.3 c 8.3 c 83.4 d
 Thiophanate-methyl 26.7 b 16.7 b 9.1 b 72.8 e
 Pathogen only 60.0 a 18.1 a 33.3 a 50.0 f
Treatment Fusarium oxysporum
Damping-off (%) Wilt (%) Survival plants (%)
Pre-emergence Post-emergence
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. harzianum 13.3 d 7.7 e 7.7 d 84.4 b
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. viride 13.3 d 7.7 e 7.7 d 84.4 b
 Thiophanate-methyl + T. virens 6.7 e 7.1 f 7.1 e 85.8 a
T. harzianum 20.0 c 9.1 c 8.3 c 75.0 d
T. viride 20.0 c 8.3 d 8.3 c 83.4 c
T. virens 20.0 c 8.3 d 8.3 c 83.4 c
 Thiophanate-methyl 26.7 b 16.7 b 18.2 b 72.7 e
 Pathogen only 53.3 a 28.6 a 42.9 a 28.5 f
  1. The same letter after means in each column is not significantly different according to Duncan’s multiple range test (P = 0.05)